"2" + 2 in Java

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"2" + 2
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The second 2 is first converted to a String, yielding "2", which will then be appended to the first String It is also possible to convert a number of one type explicitly into another type, which is done by specifying the target type in parentheses before the value:
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(double) 3
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This example specifies a double number built from 3, which will be equivalent to 30
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It is also possible to do conversions that lose data in this way, such as
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(int) 675
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This will yield the value 6, the result of simply chopping off the decimal part Java would never perform such a conversion automatically, but it is perfectly valid for a programmer to do so This kind of moving from one type to another is called casting It may help to think of an actor being "type cast," meaning forced into a particular role Casting will become very important once objects and classes have been introduced
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All the values seen so far have been literals, meaning that they represent themselves Java also supports variables, which can be thought of as boxes that can contain any value and whose value can be changed throughout the course of a program Before a variable can be used, it must be declared, which will tell Java the name and type of the variable A typical declaration might look like
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int aNumber;
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The semicolon designates the end of a Java statement, which is slightly different from an expression A statement does something, whereas an expression has a value The preceding statement creates a new "box" called aNumber, which can hold an integer A value can be placed in this box with an assignment, which might look like
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aNumber = 2 + 4 - 7;
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This sets aNumber to -1 Once it has a value, a variable can be used in expressions just like any other value, such as the following:
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2 - aNumber
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This represents the number 2 - (-1), which equals 3 Variables can also be changed as many times as desired:
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aNumber = 1; aNumber = aNumber + 1;
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After these two lines are encountered in a program, aNumber will be 2 Note that this is starting to look like algebra, although the symbols have a subtly different meaning In algebra, the second statement would be meaningless, as a number can never be equal to
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itself plus 1 In Java, however, this statement means "compute aNumber + 1, which is 2, and then put that value back in the box called aNumber" If a statement or expression tries to mix types in a way that Java cannot automatically resolve, an error will be reported when the programmer tries to convert the program into a form that can be run Either of these statements will cause an error:
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aNumber = 20; aNumber = "Hi there";
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Java allows programmers to create methods, which can be thought of as black boxes with some number of inputs and one output Values of particular types are dropped into the inputs, and a value of a, possibly different, type comes out of the output If a method called max has been defined, which takes two integers and returns the greater of the two, the following expression will have the value 8:
max(8,3)
Method calls can be used in other expressions; the following will set aNumber to 10:
aNumber = max(8,3) + 2;
The values given to a method i ts arguments c an also be arbitrary expressions The following expressions are both valid:
max(3+2,12) max(11,max(13,20))
However, the following is not, because max() can take only integer arguments:
max(2,"some string")
Some methods do not return a value These methods can be used as statements One very common such method is Systemoutprintln() For the moment, don't worry about the apparently strange name of this method; the important thing is what it does: print its argument to the user's terminal or window This method might be used in any of the following ways:
Systemoutprintln(2); Systemoutprintln( 73 / 21 ); Systemoutprintln("Hello, world!"); Systemoutprintln("The current value of aNumber is " +
aNumber);
The last one will convert aNumber to a string, append this string to "The current value of aNumber is", and print the result