File Speci cation Strings in Java

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3101 File Speci cation Strings
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The standard format for representing a simple le speci cation in string form divides the string into component substrings separated by the slash character (/) The slash is a generic component separator that is mapped to the appropriate
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File Speci cations
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platform-speci c separator when generating a platform-dependent le name Any of the components may be empty If a component contains one or more literal slashes, each must be preceded by a backslash (\), which in turn must be preceded by another backslash to indicate that it is part of the string and not an escape character For example, the string
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(in\\/out)
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represents the le name
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in/out
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The backslashes are removed in processing the string; they are needed only to distinguish the component values from the component separators The component substrings are stored as bytes and are passed to the operating system without interpretation or conversion of any sort
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Absolute and Relative File Speci cations
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A simple le speci cation that begins with a slash is an absolute le speci cation The last component is the le name; the preceding components specify its context In some le speci cations, the le name may be empty; for example, URL (uniform resource locator) speci cations can specify directories instead of les A le speci cation that does not begin with a slash is a relative le speci cation giving the location of the le relative to that of the PDF le containing it In the case of a URL-based le system, the rules of Internet RFC 1808, Relative Uniform Resource Locators (see the Bibliography), are used to compute an absolute URL from a relative le speci cation and the speci cation of the PDF le Prior to this process, the relative le speci cation is converted to a relative URL by using the escape mechanism of RFC 1738, Uniform Resource Locators, to represent any bytes that would be either unsafe according to RFC 1738 or not representable in 7-bit US ASCII In addition, such URL-based relative le speci cations are limited to paths as de ned in RFC 1808; the scheme, network location/login, fragment identi er, query information, and parameter sections are not allowed In the case of other le systems, a relative le speci cation is converted to an absolute le speci cation by removing the le name component from the speci ca-
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tion of the containing PDF le and appending the relative le speci cation in its place For example, the relative le speci cation
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ArtFiles/Figure1pdf
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appearing in a PDF le whose speci cation is
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/HardDisk/PDFDocuments/AnnualReport/Summarypdf
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yields the absolute speci cation
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/HardDisk/PDFDocuments/AnnualReport/ArtFiles/Figure1pdf
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The special component (two periods) can be used in a relative le speci cation to move up a level in the le system hierarchy When the component immediately preceding is not another , the two cancel each other; both are eliminated from the le speci cation and the process is repeated Thus in the example above, the relative le speci cation
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//ArtFiles/Figure1pdf
would yield the absolute speci cation
/HardDisk/ArtFiles/Figure1pdf
Conversion to Platform-Dependent File Names
The conversion of a le speci cation into a platform-dependent le name depends on the speci c le naming conventions of each platform For example:
For DOS, the initial component is either a physical or logical drive identi er or
a network resource name as returned by the Microsoft Windows function WNetGetConnection, and is followed by a colon ( : ) A network resource name is constructed from the rst two components; the rst component is the server name and the second is the share name (volume name) All components are then separated by backslashes It is possible to specify an absolute DOS path without a drive by making the rst component empty (Empty components are ignored by other platforms)
For Mac OS, all components are separated by colons ( : )
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File Speci cations
For UNIX, all components are separated by slashes ( / ) An initial slash, if
present, is preserved Strings used to specify a le name are interpreted in the standard encoding for the platform on which the document is being viewed Table 331 shows examples of le speci cations on the most common platforms