Literal Strings in Java

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A literal string is written as an arbitrary number of characters enclosed in parentheses Any characters may appear in a string except unbalanced parentheses and the backslash, which must be treated specially Balanced pairs of parentheses within a string require no special treatment The following are valid literal strings:
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(This is a string) (Strings may contain newlines and such)
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(Strings may contain balanced parentheses ( ) and special characters (*!&}^% and so on)) (The following is an empty string) () (It has zero (0) length)
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Within a literal string, the backslash (\) is used as an escape character for various purposes, such as to include newline characters, nonprinting ASCII characters, unbalanced parentheses, or the backslash character itself in the string The character immediately following the backslash determines its precise interpretation (see Table 32) If the character following the backslash is not one of those shown in the table, the backslash is ignored
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TABLE 32 Escape sequences in literal strings
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SEQUENCE MEANING
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\n \r \t \b \f \( \) \\
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Line feed (LF) Carriage return (CR) Horizontal tab (HT) Backspace (BS) Form feed (FF) Left parenthesis Right parenthesis Backslash Character code ddd (octal)
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\ddd
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If a string is too long to be conveniently placed on a single line, it may be split across multiple lines by using the backslash character at the end of a line to indicate that the string continues on the following line The backslash and the endof-line marker following it are not considered part of the string For example:
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(These \ two strings \ are the same) (These two strings are the same)
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Objects
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If an end-of-line marker appears within a literal string without a preceding backslash, the result is equivalent to \n (regardless of whether the end-of-line marker itself was a carriage return, a line feed, or both) For example:
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(This string has an end of line at the end of it ) (So does this one\n)
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The \ddd escape sequence provides a way to represent characters outside the printable ASCII character set For example:
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(This string contains \245two octal characters\307)
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The number ddd may consist of one, two, or three octal digits, with high-order over ow ignored It is required that three octal digits be used, with leading zeros as needed, if the next character of the string is also a digit For example, the literal
(\0053)
denotes a string containing two characters, \005 (Control-E) followed by the digit 3, whereas both
(\053)
(\53)
denote strings containing the single character \053, a plus sign (+) This notation provides a way to specify characters outside the 7-bit ASCII character set using ASCII characters only However, any 8-bit value may appear in a string In particular, when a document is encrypted (see Section 35, Encryption ), all of its strings are encrypted and often contain arbitrary 8-bit values Note that the backslash character is still required as an escape to specify unbalanced parentheses or the backslash character itself
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Syntax
Hexadecimal Strings
Strings may also be written in hexadecimal form; this is useful for including arbitrary binary data in a PDF le A hexadecimal string is written as a sequence of hexadecimal digits (0 9 and either A F or a f ) enclosed within angle brackets (< and >):
<4E6F762073686D6F7A206B6120706F702E>
Each pair of hexadecimal digits de nes one byte of the string White-space characters (such as space, tab, carriage return, line feed, and form feed) are ignored If the nal digit of a hexadecimal string is missing that is, if there is an odd number of digits the nal digit is assumed to be 0 For example,
<901FA3>
is a 3-byte string consisting of the characters whose hexadecimal codes are 90, 1F, and A3, but
<901FA>
is a 3-byte string containing the characters whose hexadecimal codes are 90, 1F, and A0
324 Name Objects
A name object is an atomic symbol uniquely de ned by a sequence of characters Uniquely de ned means that any two name objects made up of the same sequence of characters are identically the same object Atomic means that a name has no internal structure; although it is de ned by a sequence of characters, those characters are not elements of the name A slash character (/) introduces a name The slash is not part of the name itself, but a pre x indicating that the following sequence of characters constitutes a name There can be no white-space characters between the slash and the rst character in the name The name may include any regular characters, but not delimiter or white-space characters (see Section 31, Lexical Conventions )