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matrix (CTM) in the graphics state; see Section 533, Text Space Details If the text space is later scaled to make the unit size 1 centimeter, painting glyphs from the same 12-unit font will generate results that are 12 centimeters high
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Normal uses of Tj and other glyph-painting operators cause black- lled glyphs to be painted Other effects can be obtained by combining font operators with general graphics operators The color used for painting glyphs is the current color in the graphics state: either the nonstroking or the stroking color (or both), depending on the text rendering mode (see Section 525, Text Rendering Mode ) The default color is black, but other colors can be obtained by executing an appropriate color-setting operator or operators (see Section 457, Color Operators ) before painting the glyphs Example 53 uses text rendering mode 0 and the g operator to ll glyphs in 50 percent gray, as shown in Figure 51
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Example 53 BT /F13 48 Tf 20 40 Td 0 Tr 05 g (ABC) Tj ET
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FIGURE 51 Glyphs painted in 50% gray
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Other graphical effects can be achieved by treating the glyph outline as a path instead of lling it The text rendering mode parameter in the graphics state speci es whether glyph outlines are to be lled, stroked, used as a clipping boundary, or some combination of these effects (This parameter does not apply to Type 3 fonts) Example 54 treats glyph outlines as a path to be stroked The Tr operator sets the text rendering mode to 1 (stroke) The w operator sets the line width to 2 units in user space Given those graphics state parameters, the Tj operator strokes the glyph outlines with a line 2 points thick (see Figure 52)
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Example 54 BT /F13 48 Tf 20 38 Td 1 Tr 2 w (ABC) Tj ET
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FIGURE 52 Glyph outlines treated as a stroked path
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Example 55 treats the glyphs outlines as a clipping boundary The Tr operator sets the text rendering mode to 7 (clip), causing the subsequent Tj operator to impose the glyph outlines as the current clipping path All subsequent painting operations will mark the page only within this path, as illustrated in Figure 53 This state persists until some earlier clipping path is reinstated by the Q operator
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Example 55 BT /F13 48 Tf 20 38 Td 7 Tr (ABC) Tj ET Graphics operators to draw a starburst
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FIGURE 53 Graphics clipped by a glyph path
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A glyph s width formally, its horizontal displacement is the amount of space it occupies along the baseline of a line of text that is written horizontally In other words, it is the distance the current text position moves (by translating text space) when the glyph is painted Note that the width is distinct from the dimensions of the glyph outline In some fonts, the width is constant; it does not vary from glyph to glyph Such fonts are called xed-pitch or monospaced They are used mainly for typewriterstyle printing However, most fonts used for high-quality typography associate a different width with each glyph Such fonts are called proportional or variablepitch fonts In either case, the Tj operator positions the glyphs for consecutive characters of a string according to their widths The width information for each glyph is stored both in the font dictionary and in the font program itself (The two sets of widths must be identical; storing this information in the font dictionary, although redundant, enables a viewer applica-
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tion to determine glyph positioning without having to look inside the font program) The operators for showing text are designed on the assumption that glyphs are ordinarily positioned according to their standard widths However, means are provided to vary the positioning in certain limited ways For example, the TJ operator enables the text position to be adjusted between any consecutive pair of glyphs corresponding to characters in a text string There are graphics state parameters to adjust character and word spacing systematically In addition to width, a glyph has several other metrics that in uence glyph positioning and painting For most font types, this information is largely internal to the font program and is not speci ed explicitly in the PDF font dictionary; however, in a Type 3 font, all metrics are speci ed explicitly (see Section 554, Type 3 Fonts ) The glyph coordinate system is the space in which an individual character s glyph is de ned All path coordinates and metrics are interpreted in glyph space For all font types except Type 3, the units of glyph space are one-thousandth of a unit of text space; for a Type 3 font, the transformation from glyph space to text space is de ned by a font matrix speci ed in an explicit FontMatrix entry in the font Figure 54 shows a typical glyph outline and its metrics