Exercise 108 in VB.NET

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Exercise 108
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Creational patterns are used in programs where objects are created interactively by the user Explain the key feature that a creational pattern would bring to the design of this type of application How does a Prototype pattern differ from a Factory Method
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1052 Structural Patterns
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Structural patterns are concerned with the mechanics of building complex structures in software while maintaining the general goal of promoting reusability and
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10 n Object Modelling
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abstraction This can be used to allow incompatible classes to inter-operate, complex hierarchical structures of objects to be maintained uniformly within an application, or for a variety of other reasons where the clean structure of an application would be compromised by a proliferation of classes or objects
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10521 The Adapter Pattern
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A typical use of structural patterns would be to integrate an existing class into an application where a similar but different class would t more easily For example, we could have a class that accepts a member of the ArrayList class as a parameter perhaps to perform some calculation on the values of all its members Assume the class contained a member function with the following signature:
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Public Function CalculateTotal(ByVal A As ArrayList) As Decimal
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We need to pass an ArrayList to this method Now assume we need to be able to pass some other collection of items to this method an array, the Items() property of a ListBox or ComboBox or some custom collection based on the CollectionBase class The only option would seem to be to create a new ArrayList object and add all of the objects in the incompatible collection to it However, the ArrayList class provides a shared method, Adapter(), which will take almost any collection object and make it work like an ArrayList Its use is shown in Listing 1016
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Dim AR() As Integer = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} Dim AL As ArrayList AL = ArrayListAdapter(AR) 'We can now go on to work with AL as if it was an 'ArrayList Dim T As Integer T = CalculateTotal(AL) 'AR has been made to look like 'an ArrayList ' Listing 1016: Using an Adapter()
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Microsoft has incorporated the Adapter pattern into the NET framework because it is the ideal way to deal with this particular situation The Adapter pattern is used to make a member of one class appear as if it was a member of another class Since the class interface is an all-important feature of object-oriented programming, and since we spend so much time making sure that interfaces will only accept objects of a particular type to make classes robust, the Adapter pattern comes along as a particularly useful feature when we need to create inter-operations between objects of two incompatible classes In general, the Adapter pattern allows us to mix and match objects of classes from a wide range of applications and interfaces, without the need to make any alterations to any of the existing classes
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105 Software Patterns
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A drawing made up of composite elements
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10522 The Composite Pattern
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This pattern allows us to work with complex hierarchical structures of objects in the same way that we would work with single objects It is based on a hierarchical tree structure In the earlier example of a graphics application, we may decide to implement a Group command so that we can compose a number of graphics primitives into a single object The resulting complex object should be addressable as a single object for the purposes of editing, moving deletion, copying, etc The structural requirements are shown in Figure 109 Items in this drawing structure are either primitives or groups However, we will be making the drawing and editing code in the application unnecessarily complex if we make it necessary to distinguish between these two types of drawn item The Composite pattern allows us to avoid making the distinction by preserving the compatibility of both single items and groups We can do this by sub-classing the Shape class to create a shape that can contain other shapes, as shown in Listing 1017
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Public Class CompositeShape Inherits clsShape Private mvarChildren As ArrayList Public Sub New() MyBaseNew(0, 0, 0, 0, New DrawStyle(PensBlack, _ BrushesWhite)) End Sub Public Sub AddShape(ByVal S As clsShape) 'We should only create the ArrayList if it is needed 'If a Shape has no Children, the ArrayList object 'would just take up memory unnecessarily If mvarChildren Is Nothing Then mvarChildren = New ArrayList() End If mvarChildrenAdd(S) 'To make the composite object include S, we will
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