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CHAPTER
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Object Modelling
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In this chapter, you will learn about: ways of organizing the objects in an application for exibility and ease of maintenance; 3-tier application structures; the role that collections play in applications; how objects are disposed of; class interface design principles; software patterns
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Application Structure
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An object-oriented program can involve many classes and many objects of these classes Each class is a design for objects that have a role to play in the nal application However, in a complex system, the large number of objects in memory at any one time can easily get out of hand A developer needs some organizational principles to apply to simplify the job of making objects t together in a way that works and is maintainable There are almost as many application structures as there are application programs in use In some respects, the structure of an application, which is simply the way that the objects t together to do the work, is what makes it unique However, we have a limited range of tools to apply to design an application structure, and so we can generally factor out some common design principles When we approach the design of a new application, we must consider several areas of concern
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What form will the application take Will it be a WinForms application, in which there can be several user-interface elements driving the objects, or a Console application with more simple interactive input and output, a simple command driven system or perhaps even a web-based system What is the natural logical structure that associates the main objects in the system with the way that they are processed For example, a program might be required to deal with a number of independent documents simultaneously, or may allow the user only to work on documents one at a time In the rst of these, the best
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101 Application Structure
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structure could be to manage a collection of independent objects, each with its own user-interface (Microsoft Word works like this); the second is more easily implemented since there is no need to determine which document is currently active What is the composition of the main objects in the system We can think of a document as a collection of sections, each of which is a collection of paragraphs, each of which is a collection of sentences, etc However, a CAD system may be better organized as a single collection of draw-able objects (circles, rectangles, lines, etc) or as some form of network structure in which the connections between objects de ne their structural relationships How long will the information contained in the objects be expected to exist Simple programs may simply accept input, process it, display results and then forget it all However, you would be rightly upset if your word processor (or even Visual Studio) were to behave like this Normally, we expect a program to be able to save data to a more permanent storage device (like a disk drive) and be able to retrieve it again later Depending on the complexity of the information and our needs for accessing it, we may have to save all of the objects to a disk le when a program ends and retrieve them all when it is used again, or we may save individual objects to a database and retrieve them on an as-needed basis How will the user of an application choose which objects to work with Is their some logical structure that can be mirrored in the application s user-interface (eg a spreadsheet is organized as a matrix of cells, and the user selects a cell by clicking on it and entering data or a formula) or will it be necessary to come up with some novel method that allows objects to be manipulated (eg a 3-D drawing program will require some way of allowing the user to select a viewpoint from which to see the objects)
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These and other factors could be thought of as individual problems to be dealt with when creating an application However, it has long been recognized that designing a suitable structure for modelling the information in an application is the key to success in its implementation Whole libraries of books are dedicated to the subject of datastructures in software In object-oriented design, we more correctly speak of objectstructures when we consider how the objects in an application are made to t together
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