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Review Questions
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Algorithms are fundamental building blocks of software designs An algorithm is a step-by-step description of how to complete a task Since a software system will comprise a large number of tasks, its development will involve the encoding of a large number of algorithms into a programming language Fortunately, most algorithms are lists of simple instructions for how to accomplish routine operations Some algorithms are more mathematical, and it is sometimes necessary to prove that a proposed algorithm will actually produce a solution in a nite number of steps (which is a requirement of any algorithm) In developing an algorithm or a whole software system, it is often necessary to start with a general description of a task and decompose it into a sequence of subtasks There are a number of approaches to this process Top-down decomposition involves taking the top-level task description (eg a requirements statement or a service) and breaking it down into smaller and smaller parts until it is a trivial matter to code each in a programming language Bottom-up composition involves taking available designs for speci c tasks in a system, and combining these into higher and higher levels of task until the system design is built In most cases, both approaches will have a role to play in a software system s development Object-oriented development is a way of building systems by breaking systems down into objects An object is a component that contains data and is associated with speci c procedures for manipulating it Object-oriented designs bene t from a tight association between procedures and data; objects form better models of real-world objects because of it Object-oriented design involves creating assemblies and other associations of objects Since objects provide speci c services to other objects, the relationship between two collaborating objects is often referred to as a clientserver relationship In NET, a single project de nes a program or a major component that can be used by other programs, and is known as an Assembly A solution is a project that can involve one or more assemblies that work together on a task or group of tasks
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Review Questions
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1 Indicate which of the following statements about software life-cycles are true and which are false a) b) c) The software life-cycle is a system for describing the life of a computer program Most of the phases in the software life-cycle are interchangeable The Waterfall life-cycle is based on the creation of documents to ease the transition to the next phase of development
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d) Code-and- x is an important life-cycle model e) Life-cycle models are best if suited to the type of software being developed and the experience of the developers
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1 n Software Development and NET
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2 Software requirements speci cation is the most important phase of the life-cycle Give two reasons why this is so 3 Write a simple requirements speci cation for a four-function (+, , , ) pocket calculator Concentrate on what it must do 4 Write an algorithm for getting cash out of an ATM (ie a hole-in-the-wall bank) You should assume that you are directing someone who has never used one 5 Write an algorithm for looking up a word in the dictionary 6 Consider the following tasks, and decide whether you would use top-down decomposition or bottom-up composition or both to describe them in detail Your answers should take into account your experience of the sub-tasks involved You need not actually create the detailed task descriptions: a) making a cup of tea
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b) lling in a tax form c) booking a foreign holiday
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d) calculating who pays what after a meal in a restaurant
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Practical Activities
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At the end of each chapter of this book, you will nd one or more suggested practical activities These are an important part of the book and should not be ignored if your aim is to learn how to program in Visual Basic NET While the body of a chapter will explain a number of topics and describe how they relate to the overall skill of programming, the end of chapter activities will give you a chance to put these topics into practice, experiment with the language and gain essential experience in the use of Visual Studio NET and Visual Basic In the activities for this chapter, we will examine the Visual Basic Net Integrated Development Environment (IDE), homing in on some of the main features and examining the range of options available for a developer You will get the most from them by following through the activities at each stage Although you can create Visual Basic NET programs with no more than a copy of Windows Notepad (see Appendix 1), Visual Studio NET is the best environment for creating VB NET programs since it provides a full IDE This enables you to write programs, design user-interfaces, access and extract information from database and web servers and create complex, multi-assembly projects within a helpful environment that protects you from the necessary complexities normally involved
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