Sub Main() Dim i(100) As Integer Dim index As Integer in VB.NET

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Sub Main() Dim i(100) As Integer Dim index As Integer
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For index = 0 To 100 i(index) = index Next End Sub Listing 62: A simple array of 101 elements, and a ForNext loop to initialize it
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What this does is to create a 101 element array of integers, and then place the index number of each element in that element i(0) will contain 0, i(1) contains 1, etc All of a sudden, the ForNext loop takes on a whole new role, as a way of working through each element of an array, getting the enclosed statements to work on each element one at a time One potential problem with this is that we could refer to an array element using an index that does not exist in the array (eg i(101)) To get around this potential problem, VB gives us an alternative form of ForNext loop (Listing 63)
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Sub Main() Dim i(100) As Single Dim value As Single For Each value in i value = 05 Next End Sub Listing 63: Using the ForEach structure ForEach simply works through every element in the array, and saves us having to know what the upper index bound is In this case, we end up with an array in which each element is given a value of 05 Note that the index variable required by a normal ForNext loop is always an Integer type, as we are using it to count through the members, while the iteration variable used in a For EachNext loop must be of a type that matches the content of each element of the array: in Listing 63, value is a Single, the same type as the elements in the array i
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621 Initializing Elements of an Array
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We can use an alternative type of declaration to initialize the elements of an array of values (Listing 64)
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Sub Main() Dim numbers() As Integer = {10, 20, 30, 40, 50} Dim index As Integer For index = 0 To numbersGetUpperBound(0) ConsoleWriteLine("numbers({0}) = {1}", index, _ numbers(index)) Next End Sub Listing 64: Initializing an array
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62 Arrays
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Executing Listing 64
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In this case, the number of elements in the array is implied by the list of values provided in braces {} after it The GetUpperBound() method returns the index of the last array element (in this case 4) Its parameter (0) speci es the dimension of a multi-dimensional array, which we ll look at next in this case it is specifying the rst and only dimension Executing the code gives a result as shown in Figure 62
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Exercises 62
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1 Create an array that contains the names of the months of the year 2 Write code to display the names of the months 3 Create a second array which is related to the rst in that it stores the number of days in the corresponding entry in the array of month names (ignore leap-years)
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622 Dimensions of an Array
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In the simple arrays we ve seen so far, an array has been a list of values In programming parlance, they have been 1-dimensional arrays However, Visual Basic also allows us to de ne 2-dimensional arrays, which are like arrays of arrays, 3-dimensional arrays, which are like arrays of 2-dimensional arrays and so on While a single-dimensional array can be used as a list of variables, a 2-dimensional (or 2-D) array would be more like a table, with rows and columns, eg Listing 65 and Figure 63
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The 2-dimensional array generated by the code in Listing 65
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Sub Main() Dim numbers(4, 5) As Integer Dim row, column As Integer For row = 0 To 4 For column = 0 To 5 numbers(row, column) = row * column Next Next For row = 0 To 4 For column = 0 To 5 ConsoleWrite("{0:D2} ", numbers(row, column)) Next ConsoleWriteLine() Next End Sub Listing 65: Creating and using a 2-D array
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The rst ForNext loop initializes the values of all the array elements to the product of the row and column number, and the second displays the whole array in a grid or table-like format Note the use of a number format speci er ({0:D2}) in the ConsoleWrite() statement This indicates that each number should be displayed as a 2-digit number, with leading zeros where necessary Note also the use of a ConsoleWriteLine() statement to force a new line at the end of each row The nested ForNext loops are ideal for allowing us to access the array by row and column We can again initialize a 2-D array implicitly, as shown in Listing 66
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Sub Main() Dim numbers(,) As Integer = {{5, 12, 17}, {6, 7, 2}, _ {3, 3, 6}, {4, 11, 12}} Dim row, column As Integer For row = 0 To numbersGetUpperBound(0) For column = 0 To numbersGetUpperBound(1) ConsoleWrite("{0:D2} ", numbers(row, column)) Next ConsoleWriteLine() Next End Sub Listing 66: Initializing a 2-D array
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The number of dimensions is indicated in brackets after the array name by a comma a single comma, as here, shows that two size speci ers are missing, so it is a 2-D array GetUpperBound() has been used to determine the number of elements in each dimension of the array GetUpperBound(0) gives the number of rows and GetUpperBound(1) the number of columns Each row of the array is an array as well, so in the list of initialization values, whole rows are enclosed in braces, just like the overall array Of course, using initialization like this for an array can be quite