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Putting It All Together
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In the previous chapter, I demonstrated a script that sets up a domain with some OUs, designed to model a production environment in a test lab But what's a domain without users
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Preload Domain II
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Listing 162 shows a script that utilizes everything I've covered in this chapter It's designed to be added to the end of Listing 151 for a complete domain preloading script This script creates a couple of thousand users accounts, some groups, and distributes users into the groups Listing 162 PreloadDomain2vbs Creating dummy user and group accounts for a domain in a test environment
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'create 10,000 user accounts 'seriously - don't run this in a 'production domain!
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'connect to the root Dim oRoot Set oRoot = GetObject("LDAP://rootDES")
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'connect to the Users container Dim oContainer Set oContainer = GetObject("LDAP://cn=Users," & _ oRootGet("defaultNamingContext")
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'create 10,000 users Dim iUser, oUser For iUser = 1 To 10000 Set oUser = oContainerCreate("user", _ "DummyUser" & CStr(iUser) oUserSetInfo Next
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Working with users and groups is relatively easy from within ADSI Remember that you can use the WinNT provider to access not only Windows NT domains, but also Active Directory domains, standalone computers, domain member computers, and so forth Native Active Directory access is provided through the LDAP provider, which also provides access to other LDAP-based directories, such as Exchange 5x Some of the most useful scripts you'll develop will use ADSI to manage local user accounts, such as service accounts and built-in accounts like Administrator COMING UP You're ready to start working with Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI), Microsoft's way of providing you with almost total administrative control of your computers through scripts WMI builds upon the object-based scripting you've been using for files and directory services, and provides a nearly unlimited range of administrative possibilities < Day Day Up >
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17 Understanding WMI
IN THIS CHAPTER You've no doubt heard about Windows Management Instrumentation and how it's the holy grail of systems administration You may have even looked into it and realized how complicated it appears to be! WMI is a powerful tool, but I'll show you that it's not as complicated as it appears Whenever I speak at conferences, I'm nearly always asked about Windows Management Instrumentation, or WMI WMI first caught on in Windows 2000 (although it's partially supported in Windows NT 40), and administrators have been hearing about how wonderful a tool it is for managing systems, especially through scripting Unfortunately, WMI is also one of the most complex-looking technologies to have come out of Redmond in a long time, and many administrators are justifiably concerned about having to spend the rest of their lives understanding it In this chapter and the two that follow, however, I'm going to show you that WMI isn't as complicated as it looks In fact, I'll even provide you with some code templates that you can modify to query or set almost any kind of management information from a Windows computer < Day Day Up >
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The WMI Hierarchy
One of the most complicated parts of WMI is the sheer number of acronyms that come with it: DMTF, CIM, Win32, and so forth First, bear in mind that you don't really need to remember any of them to use WMI effectively However, it can be helpful to understand what they all mean, because they help WMI make more sense The DMTF is the Desktop Management Task Force It's an industry group primarily concerned with making desktop computers (they do care about servers, too) easier to manage Microsoft pays close attention to the DMTF and is a contributing member One of the things that the DMTF realized is that every hardware, software, and operating system vendor has different names for the same things Windows, for example, has logical disks, partitions, volumes, and so forth; Novell NetWare uses these terms for slightly different things To clear up the confusion, the DMTF created the Common Information Model, or CIM The CIM is essentially a generic way of describing everything associated with a computer, at both a hardware and a software level The CIM defines many base classes to represent things like disks, processors, motherboards, and so forth The CIM classes only include properties that are universal For example, the CIM_DiskDrive class includes a property for Name, because all disk drives can be assigned a descriptive name It also includes a property for MaxBlockSize, because all disk drives manufactured today have an associated maximum block size The class doesn't include a property that indicates the file system used to format the disk, nor does it show whether a disk is basic or dynamic Those are operating-system-specific features not addressed by the CIM The CIM is, however, extensible When Microsoft created WMI, it created its own series of Win32 classes that are Windows-specific The Win32 classes are based on, or inherited from, CIM classes For example, there's a Win32_DiskDrive class It includes all of the properties associated with the CIM_DiskDrive class, and includes additional properties such as PNPDeviceID that are specific to the Windows operating system TIP You might want to explore the WMI reference information online, just to see how the Win32 classes build upon their CIM counterparts Go to http://msdnmicrosoftcom/library to start In the left-hand navigation tree, open Setup and System Administration, Windows Management Instrumentation, SDK Documentation, WMI Reference, and WMI Classes You'll see sections for CIM classes and Win32 classes
The main part of WMI is understanding that it's composed of these classes, which represent the hardware and software in a computer My laptop, for example, has once instance of the Win32_DiskDrive class, which simply means that the machine contains one disk drive My desktop machine has two instances of Win32_DiskDrive, which means it contains two hard disks Absolutely everything in WMI is set up to handle multiple instances of classes Sometimes, that doesn't seem to make any sense After all, how many computers do you know of that contain multiple instances of a class like Win32_MotherboardDevice Not many! But WMI is designed to be forward looking Who knows; we might someday be working with computers that do have multiple motherboards, and so WMI is set up to deal with it Multiple instances can make querying WMI information seem complex For example, suppose you want to query the IP address of a workstation's network adapter Unfortunately, you cannot just ask for the IP address from the first adapter WMI knows about Windows computers all contain multiple network adapters, if you stop to consider virtual VPN adapters, the virtual loopback adapter, and so forth So, when you write WMI queries, you have to take into account the fact that the computer probably contains multiple instances of whatever you're after, and write your script accordingly As a quick example, try the script in Listing 171 Listing 171 ShowNICvbs Shows the IP address and MAC address of each network adapter you have