CONVERSIONS AND PROMOTIONS in Java

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CONVERSIONS AND PROMOTIONS
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Narrowing Primitive Conversions
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The value must be too small (a negative value of large magnitude or negative in nity), and the result of the rst step is the smallest representable value of type int or long The value must be too large (a positive value of large magnitude or positive in nity), and the result of the rst step is the largest representable value of type int or long
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2 In the second step:
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If T is byte, char, or short, the result of the conversion is the result of a narrowing conversion to type T ( 513) of the result of the rst step
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The example:
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produces the output:
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long: -92233720368547758089223372036854775807 int: -21474836482147483647 short: 0-1 char: 065535 byte: 0-1
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The results for char, int, and long are unsurprising, producing the minimum and maximum representable values of the type The results for byte and short lose information about the sign and magnitude of the numeric values and also lose precision The results can be understood by examining the low order bits of the minimum and maximum int The minimum int is, in hexadecimal, 0x80000000, and the maximum int is 0x7fffffff This explains the short results, which are the low 16 bits of these values, namely,
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class Test { public static void main(String[] args) { float fmin = FloatNEGATIVE_INFINITY; float fmax = FloatPOSITIVE_INFINITY; Systemoutprintln("long: " + (long)fmin + "" + (long)fmax); Systemoutprintln("int: " + (int)fmin + "" + (int)fmax); Systemoutprintln("short: " + (short)fmin + "" + (short)fmax); Systemoutprintln("char: " + (int)(char)fmin + "" + (int)(char)fmax); Systemoutprintln("byte: " + (byte)fmin + "" + (byte)fmax); } }
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If T is int or long,the result of the conversion is the result of the rst step
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Widening and Narrowing Primitive Conversions
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CONVERSIONS AND PROMOTIONS
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0x0000 and 0xffff; it explains the char results, which also are the low 16 bits of these values, namely, '\u0000' and '\uffff'; and it explains the byte results, which are the low 8 bits of these values, namely, 0x00 and 0xff Despite the fact that over ow, under ow, or other loss of information may occur, narrowing conversions among primitive types never result in a run-time exception ( 11) Here is a small test program that demonstrates a number of narrowing conversions that lose information:
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// A int value not tting in byte changes sign and magnitude: Systemoutprintln("(byte)255==" + (byte)255); // A float value too big to t gives largest int value: Systemoutprintln("(int)1e20f==" + (int)1e20f);
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This test program produces the following output:
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(short)0x12345678==0x5678 (byte)255==-1 (int)1e20f==2147483647 (int)NaN==0 (float)-1e100==-Infinity (float)1e-50==00
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514 Widening and Narrowing Primitive Conversions The following conversion combines both widening and narrowing primitive convesions:
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// A NaN converted to int yields zero: Systemoutprintln("(int)NaN==" + (int)FloatNaN);
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// A double value too large for float yields in nity: Systemoutprintln("(float)-1e100==" + (float)-1e100); // A double value too small for float under ows to zero: Systemoutprintln("(float)1e-50==" + (float)1e-50);
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class Test { public static void main(String[] args) { // A narrowing of int to short loses high bits: Systemoutprintln("(short)0x12345678==0x" + IntegertoHexString((short)0x12345678));
CONVERSIONS AND PROMOTIONS
Narrowing Reference Conversions
byte to char First, the byte is converted to an int via widening primitive conversion, and then the resulting int is converted to a char by narrowing primitive conversion 515 Widening Reference Conversions A widening reference conversion exists from any type S to any type T, provided S is a subtype ( 410) of T Widening reference conversions never require a special action at run time and therefore never throw an exception at run time They consist simply in regarding a reference as having some other type in a manner that can be proved correct at compile time See 8 for the detailed speci cations for classes, 9 for interfaces, and 10 for arrays 516 Narrowing Reference Conversions
The following conversions are called the narrowing reference conversions :
From any reference type S to any reference type T, provided that S is a proper supertype ( 410) of T (An important special case is that there is a narrowing conversion from the class type Object to any other reference type) From any class type C to any non-parameterized interface type K , provided that C is not nal and does not implement K From any interface type J to any non-parameterized class type C that is not final From the interface types Cloneable and javaioSerializable to any array type T[]
From any interface type J to any non-parameterized interface type K , provided that J is not a subinterface of K
From any array type SC[] to any array type TC[], provided that SC and TC are reference types and there is a narrowing conversion from SC to TC
Such conversions require a test at run time to nd out whether the actual reference value is a legitimate value of the new type If not, then a ClassCastException is thrown