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O O A O K O O
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A thread can be blocked in a variety of circumstances, such as when it is attempting to acquire a lock or perform an external action (such as a read) that depends on external data If a thread is in such a state, ThreadgetState will return BLOCKED or WAITING An execution may result in a thread being blocked inde nitely and the execution's not terminating In such cases, the actions generated by the blocked thread must consist of all actions generated by that thread up to and including the action that caused the thread to be blocked, and no actions that would be generated by the thread after that action To reason about observable behaviors, we need to talk about sets of observable actions If O is a set of observable actions foran execution E, then set O must be a subset of E s actions, A, and must contain only a nite number of actions, even if A contains an in nite number of actions Furthermore, if an action y is in O, and either hb(x, y) or so(x, y), then x is in O Note that a set of observable actions are not restricted to external actions Rather, only external actions that are in a set of observable actions are deemed to be observable external actions A behavior B is an allowable behavior of a program P if and only if B is a nite set of external actions and either
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Both O and O' are subsets of A that ful ll the requirements for sets of observable actions
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contains no external actions
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Note that a behavior B does not describe the order in which the external actions in B are observed, but other (internal) constraints on how the external actions are generated and performed may impose such constraints
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175 Final Field Semantics
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Fields declared final are initialized once, but never changed under normal circumstances The detailed semantics of nal elds are somewhat different from those of normal elds In particular, compilers have a great deal of freedom to move reads of nal elds across synchronization barriers and calls to arbitrary or unknown methods Correspondingly, compilers are allowed to keep the value of a nal eld cached in a register and not reload it from memory in situations where a non- nal eld would have to be reloaded Final elds also allow programmers to implement thread-safe immutable objects without synchronization A thread-safe immutable object is seen as immutable by all threads, even if a data race is used to pass references to the immutable object between threads This can provide safety guarantees against misuse of an immutable class by incorrect or malicious code Final elds must be used correctly to provide a guarantee of immutability An object is considered to be completely initialized when its constructor nishes A thread that can only see a reference to an object after that object has been completely initialized is guaranteed to see the correctly initialized values for that object's nal elds The usage model for nal elds is a simple one Set the nal elds for an object in that object's constructor Do not write a reference to the object being constructed in a place where another thread can see it before the object's constructor is nished If this is followed, then when the object is seen by another thread, that thread will always see the correctly constructed version of that object's nal elds It will also see versions of any object or array referenced by those nal elds that are at least as up-to-date as the nal elds are
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The example below illustrates how nal elds compare to normal elds
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class FinalFieldExample { final int x; int y; static FinalFieldExample f; public FinalFieldExample() { x = 3; y = 4;
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static void writer() { f = new FinalFieldExample();
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static void reader() { if (f != null) { int i = fx; // guaranteed to see 3 int j = fy; // could see 0 } } }
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The class FinalFieldExample has a nal int eld x and a non- nal int eld y One thread might execute the method writer(), and another might execute the method
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reader()
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Because writer() writes f after the object's constructor nishes, the reader() will be guaranteed to see the properly initialized value for fx: it will read the value 3 However, fy is not nal; the reader() method is therefore not guaranteed to see the value 4 for it