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452 Members and Constructors of Parameterized Types Let C be a class or interface declaration with formal type parameters A1,,An, and let C<T1,,Tn> be an invocation of C, where, for 1 i n , Ti are types (rather than wildcards) Then:
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Let m be a member or constructor declaration in C, whose type as declared is T Then the type of m ( 82, 886) in the type C<T1,,Tn>, is T[A1 := T1, , An := Tn] Let m be a member or constructor declaration in D, where D is a class extended by C or an interface implemented by C Let D<U1,,Uk> be the supertype of C<T1,,Tn> that corresponds to D Then the type of m in C<T1,,Tn> is the type of m in D<U1,,Uk>
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If any of the type arguments to a parameterized type are wildcards, the type of its members and constructors is unde ned
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This is of no consequence, as it is impossible to access a member of a parameterized type without performing capture conversion ( 5110), and it is impossible to use a wildcard type after the keyword new in a class instance creation expression
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Type erasure is a mapping from types (possibly including parameterized types and type variables) to types (that are never parameterized types or type variables) We write |T| for the erasure of type T The erasure mapping is de ned as follows The erasure of a parameterized type ( 45) G<T1, ,Tn> is |G| The erasure of a nested type TC is |T|C
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The erasure of a type variable ( 44) is the erasure of its leftmost bound The erasure of every other type is the type itself The erasure of a method signature s is a signature consisting of the same name as s, and the erasures of all the formal parameter types given in s
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Because some type information is erased during compilation, not all types are available at run time Types that are completely available at run time are known as rei able types A type is rei able if and only if one of the following holds: It refers to a non-generic type declaration It is a parameterized type in which all type arguments are unbounded wildcards ( 451) It is a raw type ( 48) It is a primitive type ( 42) It is an array type ( 101) whose component type is rei able
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To facilitate interfacing with non-generic legacy code, it is also possible to use as a type the erasure ( 46) of a parameterized type ( 45) Such a type is called a raw type
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The decision not to make all generic types rei able is one of the most crucial, and controversial design decisions involving the language s type system Ultimately, the most important motivation for this decision is compatibility with existing code Naively, the addition of new constructs such as genericity has no implications for preexisting code The programming language per se, is compatible with earlier versions as long as every program written in the previous versions retains its meaning in the new version However, this notion, which may be termed language compatibility, is of purely theoretical interest Real programs (even trivial ones, such as "Hello World") are composed of several compilation units, some of which are provided by the Java platform (such as elements of javalang or javautil) In practice then, the minimum requirement is platform compatibillity - that any program written for the prior version of the platform continues to function unchanged in the new platform One way to provide platform compatibillity is to leave existing platform functionality unchanged, only adding new functionality For example, rather than modify the existing Collections hierarchy in javautil, one might introduce a new library utilizing genericity The disadvantages of such a scheme is that it is extremely dif cult for pre-existing clients of the Collection library to migrate to the new library Collections are used to exchange data between independently developed modules; if a vendor decides to switch to the new, generic, library, that vendor must also distribute two versions of their code, to be compatible with their clients Libraries that are dependent on other vendors code cannot be modi ed to use genericity until the supplier s library is updated If two modules are mutually dependent, the changes must be made simultaneously Clearly, platform compatibility, as outlined above, does not provide a realistic path for adoption of a pervasive new feature such as genericity Therefore, the design of the generic type system seeks to support migration compatibility Migration compatibiliy allows the evolution of existing code to take advantage of generics without imposing dependencies between independently developed software modules The price of migration compatibility is that a full and sound rei cation of the generic type system is not possible, at least while the migration is taking place