Scope of Local Variable Declarations in Java

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1442 Scope of Local Variable Declarations
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The initializer for three can correctly refer to the variable two declared in an earlier declarator, and the method invocation in the next line can correctly refer to the variable three declared earlier in the block The scope of a local variable declared in a for statement is the rest of the for statement, including its own initializer If a declaration of an identi er as a local variable of the same method, constructor, or initializer block appears within the scope of a parameter or local variable of the same name, a compile-time error occurs Thus the following example does not compile:
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class Test { public static void main(String[] args) { int i; for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) Systemoutprintln(i); } }
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class Test { public static void main(String[] args) { int i; class Local { { for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) Systemoutprintln(i); } } new Local(); } }
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On the other hand, local variables with the same name may be declared in two separate blocks or for statements neither of which contains the other Thus:
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class Test { public static void main(String[] args) { for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) Systemoutprint(i + " "); for (int i = 10; i > 0; i--) Systemoutprint(i + " ");
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This restriction helps to detect some otherwise very obscure bugs A similar restriction on shadowing of members by local variables was judged impractical, because the addition of a member in a superclass could cause subclasses to have to rename local variables Related considerations make restrictions on shadowing of local variables by members of nested classes, or on shadowing of local variables by local variables declared within nested classes unattractive as well Hence, the following example compiles without error:
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Execution of Local Variable Declarations
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Systemoutprintln(); } }
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compiles without error and, when executed, produces the output:
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1443 Shadowing of Names by Local Variables
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In this example, the constructor takes parameters having the same names as the elds to be initialized This is simpler than having to invent different names for the parameters and is not too confusing in this stylized context In general, however, it is considered poor style to have local variables with the same names as elds
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1444 Execution of Local Variable Declarations A local variable declaration statement is an executable statement Every time it is executed, the declarators are processed in order from left to right If a declarator has an initialization expression, the expression is evaluated and its value is assigned to the variable If a declarator does not have an initialization expression, then a Java compiler must prove, using exactly the algorithm given in 16, that every reference to the variable is necessarily preceded by execution of an assignment to the variable If this is not the case, then a compile-time error occurs
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class Pair { Object first, second; public Pair(Object first, Object second) { thisfirst = first; thissecond = second; } }
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If a name declared as a local variable is already declared as a eld name, then that outer declaration is shadowed ( 631) throughout the scope of the local variable Similarly, if a name is already declared as a variable or parameter name, then that outer declaration is shadowed throughout the scope of the local variable (provided that the shadowing does not cause a compile-time error under the rules of 1442) The shadowed name can sometimes be accessed using an appropriately quali ed name For example, the keyword this can be used to access a shadowed eld x, using the form thisx Indeed, this idiom typically appears in constructors ( 88):
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