ARRAYS in Java

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ARRAYS
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Array Access
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Here are some examples of declarations of array variables that create array objects:
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Exception ae[] = new Exception[3]; Object aao[][] = new Exception[2][3]; int[] factorial = { 1, 1, 2, 6, 24, 120, 720, 5040 }; char ac[] = { 'n', 'o', 't', ' ', 'a', ' ', 'S', 't', 'r', 'i', 'n', 'g' }; String[] aas = { "array", "of", "String", };
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byte[] rowvector, colvector, matrix[];
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This declaration is equivalent to:
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byte rowvector[], colvector[], matrix[][];
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103 Array Creation
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An array is created by an array creation expression ( 1510) or an array initializer ( 106) An array creation expression speci es the element type, the number of levels of nested arrays, and the length of the array for at least one of the levels of nesting The array s length is available as a nal instance variable length It is a compiletime error if the element type is not a rei able type ( 47) An array initializer creates an array and provides initial values for all its components
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104 Array Access
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A component of an array is accessed by an array access expression ( 1513) that consists of an expression whose value is an array reference followed by an index-
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Once an array object is created, its length never changes To make an array variable refer to an array of different length, a reference to a different array must be assigned to the variable If an array variable v has type A[], where A is a reference type, then v can hold a reference to an instance of any array type B[], provided B can be assigned to A This may result in a run-time exception on a later assignment; see 1010 for a discussion
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The [] may appear as part of the type at the beginning of the declaration, or as part of the declarator for a particular variable, or both, as in this example:
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Arrays: A Simple Example
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ARRAYS
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ing expression enclosed by [ and ], as in A[i] All arrays are 0-origin An array with length n can be indexed by the integers 0 to n-1 Arrays must be indexed by int values; short, byte, or char values may also be used as index values because they are subjected to unary numeric promotion ( ) and become int values An attempt to access an array component with a long index value results in a compile-time error All array accesses are checked at run time; an attempt to use an index that is less than zero or greater than or equal to the length of the array causes an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException to be thrown
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105 Arrays: A Simple Example
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The example:
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that produces the output:
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declares a variable ia that has type array of int, that is, int[] The variable ia is initialized to reference a newly created array object, created by an array creation expression ( 1510) The array creation expression speci es that the array should have 101 components The length of the array is available using the eld length, as shown The example program lls the array with the integers from 0 to 100, sums these integers, and prints the result
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106 Array Initializers
An array initializer may be speci ed in a declaration, or as part of an array creation expression ( 1510), creating an array and providing some initial values:
class Gauss { public static void main(String[] args) { int[] ia = new int[101]; for (int i = 0; i < ialength; i++) ia[i] = i; int sum = 0; for (int e : ia) sum += e; Systemoutprintln(sum); } }
ARRAYS
Array Initializers
ArrayInitializer: { VariableInitializersopt ,opt } VariableInitializers: VariableInitializer VariableInitializers , VariableInitializer The following is repeated from 83 to make the presentation here clearer: VariableInitializer: Expression ArrayInitializer
prints:
class Test { public static void main(String[] args) { int ia[][] = { {1, 2}, null }; for (int[] ea : ia) for (int e: ea) Systemoutprintln(e); } }
before causing a NullPointerException in trying to index the second component of the array ia, which is a null reference
An array initializer is written as a comma-separated list of expressions, enclosed by braces { and } The length of the constructed array will equal the number of expressions The expressions in an array initializer are executed from left to right in the textual order they occur in the source code The nth variable initializer speci es the value of the n-1st array component Each expression must be assignment-compatible ( 52) with the array s component type, or a compile-time error results It is a compile-time error if the component type of the array being initialized is not rei able ( 47) If the component type is itself an array type, then the expression specifying a component may itself be an array initializer; that is, array initializers may be nested A trailing comma may appear after the last expression in an array initializer and is ignored As an example: