Peer-to-Peer Applications in Visual Studio .NET

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Figure 124 Fully connected mesh
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Fully connected meshes make sense only for small mesh sizes It would be impossible to have a fully connected mesh where the number of users is attempting to scale to the Internet Instead, most meshes are only partially connected These types of meshes are called partially connected meshes In a partially connected mesh, peer nodes are connected to adjacent nodes, called neighbors Figure 125 shows a partially connected mesh Partially connected meshes reduce the number of resources needed on each node and in turn increase the scalability of the mesh Scalability for a mesh network is measured by the number of participants in the mesh The disadvantage to this type of mesh is that you cannot send messages directly to all nodes in the mesh Instead, messages are forwarded between neighbors until all participants are sent the message Messages traverse the mesh until all nodes have been contacted or messages reach a speci ed depth within the mesh
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Figure 125 Partially connected mesh
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Resolving Peer Meshes P2P applications use mesh names to identify the mesh network to participate in A mesh name is a logical network name that applications use to address the mesh network At some point a mesh name needs to be resolved into a set of network addresses to connect to This typically involves connecting to other participants in the mesh and exchanging information about other participants connected to the mesh There are many techniques used by P2P applications to discover other nodes in the mesh Examples include the use of multicast protocols, such as UDP, or well-known servers, referred to as bootstrap servers The WCF uses a speci c implementation known as Peer Network Resolution Protocol (PNRP), which is available in both Windows XP SP2 and Windows Vista PNRP uses a combination of techniques that allow for discovery across a variety of networks See Resolving Peers Using PNRP for more information about PNRP Message Flooding Versus Directional Messaging Communication over a mesh network is done using either message ooding (aka multiparty messaging) or directional messaging Message ooding
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tries to send messages to all nodes in the mesh network Messages propagate through a mesh network through nodes forwarding messages that are received to their neighbors Directional messaging tries to send messages to a speci c node in a mesh by routing a message across a set of connected nodes Messages are sent from the originating node to one of its neighbors Its neighbor then forwards the message to other nodes until the message reaches its destination In either case, techniques are typically used to limit the number of messages sent across the mesh WCF supports building P2P applications that use message ooding There is no out-of-the-box support for directional messaging; however, this type of communication can be layered on top of the existing peer networking capabilities using one or more of the extensibility features available in WCF
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WCF supports creating P2P applications using the binding This binding allows for multiparty communication over a peer transport protocol It also de nes the means that nodes use to resolve neighbors within the mesh network The default resolution protocol used by the peer transport channel is the PNRP This technology is a part of the Windows operating system and has been available since Windows XP SP2 We discuss PNRP in more detail in the Resolving Peers Using PNRP section in this chapter
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The binding offers support for peer communication with WCF Peer communication is facilitated using the This transport uses TCP and binary as the default transport protocol and message encoder The following code shows the addressing formats for the binding:
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The default port is set to 0 This means that the peer transport will randomly select a port for communication A speci c port is used if a port other than 0 is speci ed Table 121 lists the default binding properties for the binding