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connectivity to some kind of network, often with a wireless, intermittent connection and with limited (often 9600 bps or less) bandwidth
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CLDC is core technology that can be used as the basis for one or more J2ME profiles Cell phones, two-way pagers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), organizers, home appliances, low-end TV set-top boxes, and point-of-sale terminals are some, but not all, of the devices that might be supported by the Connected, Limited Device Configuration
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The material in this chapter comes from the CLDC Specification document that is available from the Java Community Process (JCP) web site[1] The CLDC Specification defines the minimum required complement of Java technology components and libraries for small connected devices Java language and virtual machine features, core libraries, input/output, networking, and security are the primary topics addressed by the CLDC Specification [1] http://jcporg/en/jsr/detail id=139 [ Team LiB ]
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41 CLDC Expert Groups
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411 CLDC 10 Expert Group
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The CLDC Specification version 10, completed in May 2000, was the result of the work of a Java Community Process (JCP) expert group JSR 30 consisting of a large number of industrial partners The following 18 companies (in alphabetical order) were members of the CLDC 10 expert group:
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America Online Bull Ericsson Fujitsu Matsushita Mitsubishi Motorola Nokia NTT DoCoMo
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Oracle Palm Computing Research In Motion (RIM) Samsung Sharp Siemens Sony Sun Microsystems Symbian
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412 CLDC 11 Expert Group
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The CLDC Specification version 11 was produced by the Java Community Process (JCP) expert group JSR 139 consisting of the following full members:
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Openwave Systems Oracle Panasonic Research In Motion
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42 CLDC Architecture, Application Model, and Security
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421 Architectural Overview
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The high-level architecture of a typical CLDC device is illustrated in Figure 41 At the heart of a CLDC implementation is the Java Virtual Machine, which, apart from specific differences defined later in this chapter, is compliant with the Java Virtual Machine Specification and Java Language Specification The virtual machine typically runs on top of a host operating system that provides the necessary capabilities to manage the underlying hardware As explained in Section 343, "Software Requirements of CLDC," the CLDC Specification makes minimal assumptions about the capabilities of the host operating system
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Figure 41 Architecture overview of a CLDC target device
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On top of the virtual machine are the Java libraries These libraries are divided broadly into two categories: 1 those defined by the Connected, Limited Device Configuration (CLDC Libraries), and 2 those defined by profiles (such as MIDP) and optional packages
Libraries defined by the Connected, Limited Device Configuration are discussed in 5 Libraries defined by profiles are outside the scope of the CLDC Specification The libraries supported by the Mobile Information Device Profile are discussed in s 8 through 20
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43 Java Language Specification Compatibility
The general goal for a virtual machine conforming to CLDC is to be as compliant with the Java Language Specification as is feasible within the strict memory limits of CLDC target devices This section summarizes the differences between a virtual machine conforming to CLDC and the Java Virtual Machine of Java 2 Standard Edition (J2SE) Except for the differences indicated herein, a virtual machine conforming to CLDC is compatible with The Java Language Specification, Second Edition, by James Gosling, Bill Joy, Guy L Steele, and Gilad Bracha, Addison-Wesley, 2000, ISBN 0-201-31008-2
Note
For the remainder of this book, the Java Language Specification is referred to as JLS Sections within the Java Language Specification are referred to using the symbol For example, (JLS 24)
431 No Finalization of Class Instances
CLDC libraries do not include the method javalangObjectfinalize() Therefore, a virtual machine conforming to CLDC does not support finalization of class instances (JLS 26) No application built to conform to the Connected, Limited Device Configuration can require that finalization be available
432 Error-Handling Limitations
A virtual machine conforming to CLDC generally supports exception handling as defined in JLS 11, with the exception that asynchronous exceptions (JLS 132) are not supported
In contrast, the set of error classes included in CLDC libraries is limited, and consequently the error-handling capabilities of CLDC are considerably more limited This is because of two reasons: 1 In embedded systems, recovery from error conditions is usually highly device-specific Application programmers cannot be expected to know about device-specific error-handling mechanisms and conventions 2 As specified in JLS 15, class javalangError and its subclasses are exceptions from which programs are not ordinarily expected to recover Implementing the error-handling capabilities fully according to the Java Language Specification is rather expensive, and mandating the presence and handling of all the error classes would impose an overhead on the virtual machine implementation
A virtual machine conforming to CLDC provides a limited set of error classes defined in Section 527, "Exception and Error Classes" When encountering any other error, the implementation behaves as follows:
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