Control Structures and Functions in Java

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4 Control Structures and Functions
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def get_string(message, name="string", default=None, minimum_length=0, maximum_length=80): message += ": " if default is None else " [{0}]: "format(default) while True: try: line = input(message) if not line: if default is not None: return default if minimum_length == 0: return "" else: raise ValueError("{0} may not be empty"format( name)) if not (minimum_length <= len(line) <= maximum_length): raise ValueError("{name} must have at least " "{minimum_length} and at most " "{maximum_length} characters"format( **locals())) return line except ValueError as err: print("ERROR", err)
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format()
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with mapping unpacking 81
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This function has one mandatory argument, message, and four optional arguments If a default value is given we include it in the message string so that the user can see the default they would get if they just press Enter without typing any text The rest of the function is enclosed in an in nite loop The loop can be broken out of by the user entering a valid string or by accepting the default (if given) by just pressing Enter If the user makes a mistake, an error message is printed and the loop continues As usual, rather than explicitly using key=value syntax to pass local variables to strformat() with a format string that uses named elds, we have simply used mapping unpacking on the mapping returned by locals() to do this for us The user could also break out of the loop, and indeed out of the entire program, by typing Ctrl+C this would cause a KeyboardInterrupt exception to be raised, and since this is not handled by any of the program s exception handlers, would cause the program to terminate and print a traceback Should we leave such a loophole If we don t, and there is a bug in our program, we could leave the user stuck in an in nite loop with no way out except to kill the process Unless there is a very strong reason to prevent Ctrl+C from terminating a program, it should not be caught by any exception handler Notice that this function is not speci c to the make_html_skeletonpy program it could be reused in many interactive programs of this type Such reuse could be achieved by copying and pasting, but that would lead to main-
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Example: make_html_skeletonpy
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tenance headaches in the next chapter we will see how to create custom modules with functionality that can be shared across any number of programs
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def get_integer(message, name="integer", default=None, minimum=0, maximum=100, allow_zero=True):
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This function is so similar in structure to the get_string() function that it would add nothing to reproduce it here (It is included in the source code that accompanies the book, of course) The allow_zero parameter can be useful when 0 is not a valid value but where we want to permit one invalid value to signify that the user has cancelled Another approach would be to pass an invalid default value, and if that is returned, take it to mean that the user has cancelled The last statement in the program is simply a call to main() Overall the program is slightly more than 150 lines and shows several features of the Python language introduced in this chapter and the previous ones
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This chapter covered the complete syntax for all of Python s control structures It also showed how to raise and catch exceptions, and how to create custom exception types Most of the chapter was devoted to custom functions We saw how to create functions and presented some rules of thumb for naming functions and their parameters We also saw how to provide documentation for functions Python s versatile parameter syntax and argument passing were covered in detail, including both xed and variable numbers of positional and keyword arguments, and default values for arguments of both immutable and mutable data types We also brie y recapped sequence unpacking with * and showed how to do mapping unpacking with ** Mapping unpacking is particularly useful when applied to a dictionary (or other mapping), or to the mapping returned by locals(), for passing key value arguments to a strformat() format string that uses named elds If we need to assign a new value to a global variable inside a function, we can do so by declaring that the variable is global, thereby preventing Python from creating a local variable and assigning to that In general, though, it is best to use global variables only for constants Lambda functions are often used as key functions, or in other contexts where functions must be passed as parameters This chapter showed how to create lambda functions, both as anonymous functions and as a means of creating small named one-line functions by assigning them to a variable
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