Custom Functions The print() Function in Java

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Custom Functions The print() Function
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The print() function accepts any number of positional arguments, and has three keyword arguments, sep, end, and file All the keyword arguments have defaults The sep parameter s default is a space; if two or more positional arguments are given, each is printed with the sep in between, but if there is just one positional argument this parameter does nothing The end parameter s default is \n, which is why a newline is printed at the end of calls to print() The file parameter s default is sysstdout, the standard output stream, which is usually the console Any of the keyword arguments can be given the values we want instead of using the defaults For example, file can be set to a le object that is open for writing or appending, and both sep and end can be set to other strings, including the empty string If we need to print several items on the same line, one common pattern is to print the items using print() calls where end is set to a suitable separator, and then at the end to call print() with no arguments, since this just prints a newline For an example, see the print_digits() function (180 ) Here is the code from the program s main() function It changes the Language variable s value if necessary, and calls print_digits() to produce the output
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def main(): if len(sysargv) == 1 or sysargv[1] in {"-h", "--help"}: print("usage: {0} [en|fr] number"format(sysargv[0])) sysexit() args = sysargv[1:] if args[0] in {"en", "fr"}: global Language Language = argspop(0) print_digits(argspop(0))
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What stands out here is the use of the global statement This statement is used to tell Python that a variable exists at the global ( le) scope, and that assignments to the variable should be applied to the global variable, rather than cause a local variable of the same name to be created If we did not use the global statement the program would run, but when Python encountered the Language variable in the if statement it would look for it in the local (function) scope, and not nding it would create a new local variable called Language, leaving the global Language unchanged This subtle bug would show up as an error only when the program was run with the fr argument, because then the local Language variable would be created and set to
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4 Control Structures and Functions
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fr , but the global Language variable used in the print_digits() function would remain unchanged as en For nontrivial programs it is best not to use global variables except as constants, in which case there is no need to use the global statement
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Lambda Functions
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Lambda functions are functions created using the following syntax:
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lambda parameters: expression
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The parameters are optional, and if supplied they are normally just commaseparated variable names, that is, positional arguments, although the complete argument syntax supported by def statements can be used The expression cannot contain branches or loops (although conditional expressions are allowed), and cannot have a return (or yield) statement The result of a lambda expression is an anonymous function When a lambda function is called it returns the result of computing the expression as its result If the expression is a tuple it should be enclosed in parentheses Here is a simple lambda function for adding an s (or not) depending on whether its argument is 1:
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s = lambda x: "" if x == 1 else "s"
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Generator functions
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The lambda expression returns an anonymous function which we assign to the variable s Any (callable) variable can be called using parentheses, so given the count of les processed in some operation we could output a message using the s() function like this: print("{0} file{1} processed"format(count, s(count))) Lambda functions are often used as the key function for the built-in sorted() function and for the listsort() method Suppose we have a list of elements as 3-tuples of (group, number, name), and we wanted to sort this list in various ways Here is an example of such a list:
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elements = [(2, 12, "Mg"), (1, 11, "Na"), (1, 3, "Li"), (2, 4, "Be")]
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If we sort this list, we get this result:
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[(1, 3, 'Li'), (1, 11, 'Na'), (2, 4, 'Be'), (2, 12, 'Mg')]
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sorted()
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140, 144
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We saw earlier when we covered the sorted() function that we can provide a key function to alter the sort order For example, if we wanted to sort the list by number and name, rather than the natural ordering of group, number, and name, we could write a tiny function, def ignore0(e): return e[1], e[2], which could be provided as the key function Creating lots of little functions like this can be inconvenient, so a frequently used alternative is a lambda function:
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