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Like a while loop, the full syntax of the for in loop also includes an optional else clause:
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for expression in iterable: for_suite else: else_suite
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The expression is normally either a single variable or a sequence of variables, usually in the form of a tuple If a tuple or list is used for the expression, each item is unpacked into the expression s items If a continue statement is executed inside the for in loop s suite, control is immediately passed to the top of the loop and the next iteration begins If the loop runs to completion it terminates, and any else suite is executed If the loop is broken out of due to a break statement, or a return statement (if the loop is in a function or method), or if an exception is raised, the else clause s suite is not executed (If an exception occurs, Python skips the else clause and looks for a suitable exception handler this is covered in the next section)
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Here is a for in loop version of the list_find() function, and like the while loop version, it shows the else clause in action:
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def list_find(lst, target): for index, x in enumerate(lst):
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139
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if x == target: break else: index = -1 return index
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As this code snippet implies, the variables created in the for in loop s expression continue to exist after the loop has terminated Like all local variables, they cease to exist at the end of their enclosing scope
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Exception Handling
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Python indicates errors and exceptional conditions by raising exceptions, although some third-party Python libraries use more old-fashioned techniques, such as error return values
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Exceptions are caught using try except blocks, whose general syntax is:
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try: try_suite except exception_group1 as variable1: except_suite1
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except exception_groupN as variableN: except_suiteN else: else_suite finally: finally_suite
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There must be at least one except block, but both the else and the finally blocks are optional The else block s suite is executed when the try block s suite has nished normally but it is not executed if an exception occurs If there is a finally block, it is always executed at the end Each except clause s exception group can be a single exception or a parenthesized tuple of exceptions For each group, the as variable part is optional; if used, the variable contains the exception that occurred, and can be accessed in the exception block s suite If an exception occurs in the try block s suite, each except clause is tried in turn If the exception matches an exception group, the corresponding suite is executed To match an exception group, the exception must be of the same type
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as the (or one of the) exception types listed in the group, or the same type as the (or one of the) group s exception types subclasses For example, if a KeyError exception occurs in a dictionary lookup, the rst except clause that has an Exception class will match since KeyError is an (indirect) subclass of Exception If no group lists Exception (as is normally the case), but one did have a LookupError, the KeyError will match, because KeyError is a subclass of LookupError And if no group lists Exception or LookupError, but one does list KeyError, then that group will match Figure 41 shows an extract from the exception hierarchy
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object BaseException Exception ArithmeticError IOError EnvironmentError OSError EOFError LookupError IndexError ValueError KeyError
Figure 41 Some of Python s exception hierarchy
Here is an example of an incorrect use:
try: x = d[5] except LookupError: # WRONG ORDER print("Lookup error occurred") except KeyError: print("Invalid key used")
If dictionary d has no item with key 5, we want the most speci c exception, KeyError, to be raised, rather than the more general LookupError exception But here, the KeyError except block will never be reached If a KeyError is raised, the LookupError except block will match it because LookupError is a base class of KeyError, that is, LookupError appears higher than KeyError in the exception hierarchy So when we use multiple except blocks, we must always order
As we will see in 6, in object-oriented programming it is common to have a class hierarchy, that is, one class data type inheriting from another In Python, the start of this hierarchy is the object class; every other class inherits from this class, or from another class that inherits from it A subclass is a class that inherits from another class, so all Python classes (except object) are subclasses since they all inherit object