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C:\>cd c:\py3eg C:\py3eg\>c:\python31\pythonexe hellopy
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Since the cd (change directory) command has an absolute path, it doesn t matter which directory you start out from Unix users enter this instead (assuming that Python 3 is in the PATH):
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$ cd $HOME/py3eg $ python3 hellopy
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In both cases the output should be the same:
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Hello World!
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Note that unless stated otherwise, Python s behavior on Mac OS X is the same as that on any other Unix system In fact, whenever we refer to Unix it can be taken to mean Linux, BSD, Mac OS X, and most other Unixes and Unix-like systems Although the program has just one executable statement, by running it we can infer some information about the print() function For one thing, print() is a built-in part of the Python language we didn t need to import or include it from a library to make use of it Also, it separates each item it prints with a single space, and prints a newline after the last item is printed These are default behaviors that can be changed, as we will see later Another thing worth noting about print() is that it can take as many or as few arguments as we care to give it Typing such command lines to invoke our Python programs would quickly become tedious Fortunately, on both Windows and Unix we can use more convenient approaches Assuming we are in the py3eg directory, on Windows we can simply type:
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C:\py3eg\>hellopy
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print()
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181
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Windows uses its registry of le associations to automatically call the Python interpreter when a lename with extension py is entered in a console Unfortunately, this convenience does not always work, since some versions of Windows have a bug that sometimes affects the execution of interpreted programs that are invoked as the result of a le association This isn t speci c to Python; other interpreters and even some bat les are affected by the bug too If this problem arises, simply invoke Python directly rather than relying on the le association If the output on Windows is:
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The Unix prompt may well be different from the $ shown here; it does not matter what it is
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1 Rapid Introduction to Procedural Programming
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('Hello', 'World!')
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then it means that Python 2 is on the system and is being invoked instead of Python 3 One solution to this is to change the py le association from Python 2 to Python 3 The other (less convenient, but safer) solution is to put the Python 3 interpreter in the path (assuming it is installed in the default location), and execute it explicitly each time (This also gets around the Windows le association bug mentioned earlier) For example:
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C:\py3eg\>path=c:\python31;%path% C:\py3eg\>python hellopy
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It might be more convenient to create a py3bat le with the single line path=c:\python31;%path% and to save this le in the C:\Windows directory Then, whenever you start a console for running Python 3 programs, begin by executing py3bat Or alternatively you can have py3bat executed automatically To do this, change the console s properties ( nd the console in the Start menu, then right-click it to pop up its Properties dialog), and in the Shortcut tab s Target string, append the text /u /k c:\windows\py3bat (note the space before, between, and after the /u and /k options, and be sure to add this at the end after cmdexe ) On Unix, we must rst make the le executable, and then we can run it:
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$ chmod +x hellopy $ /hellopy
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We need to run the chmod command only once of course; after that we can simply enter /hellopy and the program will run On Unix, when a program is invoked in the console, the le s rst two bytes are read If these bytes are the ASCII characters #!, the shell assumes that the le is to be executed by an interpreter and that the le s rst line speci es which interpreter to use This line is called the shebang (shell execute) line, and if present must be the rst line in the le The shebang line is commonly written in one of two forms, either:
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