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Figure 31 Tuple index positions
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Tuples provide just two methods, tcount(x), which returns the number of times object x occurs in tuple t, and tindex(x), which returns the index position of the leftmost occurrence of object x in tuple t or raises a ValueError exception if there is no x in the tuple (These methods are also available for lists) In addition, tuples can be used with the operators + (concatenation), * (replication), and [] (slice), and with in and not in to test for membership The += and *= augmented assignment operators can be used even though tuples are
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immutable behind the scenes Python creates a new tuple to hold the result and sets the left-hand object reference to refer to it; the same technique is used when these operators are applied to strings Tuples can be compared using the standard comparison operators (<, <=, ==, !=, >=, >), with the comparisons being applied item by item (and recursively for nested items such as tuples inside tuples) Let s look at a few slicing examples, starting with extracting one item, and a slice of items:
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>>> hair = "black", "brown", "blonde", "red" >>> hair[2] 'blonde' >>> hair[-3:] # same as: hair[1:] ('brown', 'blonde', 'red')
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These work the same for strings, lists, and any other sequence type
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>>> hair[:2], "gray", hair[2:] (('black', 'brown'), 'gray', ('blonde', 'red'))
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Here we tried to create a new 5-tuple, but ended up with a 3-tuple that contains two 2-tuples This happened because we used the comma operator with three items (a tuple, a string, and a tuple) To get a single tuple with all the items we must concatenate tuples:
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>>> hair[:2] + ("gray",) + hair[2:] ('black', 'brown', 'gray', 'blonde', 'red')
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To make a 1-tuple the comma is essential, but in this case, if we had just put in the comma we would get a TypeError (since Python would think we were trying to concatenate a string and a tuple), so here we must have the comma and parentheses In this book (from this point on), we will use a particular coding style when writing tuples When we have tuples on the left-hand side of a binary operator or on the right-hand side of a unary statement, we will omit the parentheses, and in all other cases we will use parentheses Here are a few examples:
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a, b = (1, 2) del a, b def f(x): return x, x ** 2 # left of binary operator # right of unary statement # right of unary statement # left of binary operator
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for x, y in ((1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9)): print(x, y)
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There is no obligation to follow this coding style; some programmers prefer to always use parentheses which is the same as the tuple representational form, whereas others use them only if they are strictly necessary
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>>> eyes = ("brown", "hazel", "amber", "green", "blue", "gray") >>> colors = (hair, eyes) >>> colors[1][3:-1] ('green', 'blue')
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Here we have nested two tuples inside another tuple Nested collections to any level of depth can be created like this without formality The slice operator [] can be applied to a slice, with as many used as necessary For example:
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>>> things = (1, -75, ("pea", (5, "Xyz"), "queue")) >>> things[2][1][1][2] 'z'
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Let s look at this piece by piece, beginning with things[2] which gives us the third item in the tuple (since the rst item has index 0), which is itself a tuple, ("pea", (5, "Xyz"), "queue") The expression things[2][1] gives us the second item in the things[2] tuple, which is again a tuple, (5, "Xyz") And things[2][1][1] gives us the second item in this tuple, which is the string "Xyz" Finally, things[2][1][1][2] gives us the third item (character) in the string, that is, "z" Tuples are able to hold any items of any data type, including collection types such as tuples and lists, since what they really hold are object references Using complex nested data structures like this can easily become confusing One solution is to give names to particular index positions For example:
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>>> >>> >>> >>> 220 MANUFACTURER, MODEL, SEATING = (0, 1, 2) MINIMUM, MAXIMUM = (0, 1) aircraft = ("Airbus", "A320-200", (100, 220)) aircraft[SEATING][MAXIMUM]
This is certainly more meaningful than writing aircraft[2][1], but it involves creating lots of variables and is rather ugly We will see an alternative in the next subsection In the rst two lines of the aircraft code snippet, we assigned to tuples in both statements When we have a sequence on the right-hand side of an assignment (here we have tuples), and we have a tuple on the left-hand side, we say that the right-hand side has been unpacked Sequence unpacking can be used to swap values, for example:
a, b = (b, a)