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>>> artist = "Tage s n" >>> artistencode("Latin1") b'Tage \xc5s\xe9n' >>> artistencode("CP850") b'Tage \x8fs\x82n' >>> artistencode("utf8") b'Tage \xc3\x85s\xc3\xa9n' >>> artistencode("utf16") b'\xff\xfeT\x00a\x00g\x00e\x00 \x00\xc5\x00s\x00\xe9\x00n\x00'
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A b before an opening quote signi es a bytes literal rather than a string literal As a convenience, when creating bytes literals we can use a mixture of printable ASCII characters and hexadecimal escapes We cannot encode Tage s n s name using the ASCII encoding because it does not have the character or any accented characters, so attempting to do so will result in a UnicodeEncodeError exception being raised The Latin-1 encoding (also known as ISO-8859-1) is an 8-bit encoding that has all the necessary characters for this name On the other hand, artist Erno B nk would be less fortunate since the o character is not a Latin-1 character and so could not be successfully encoded Both names can be successfully encoded using Unicode encodings, of course Notice, though, that for UTF-16, the rst two bytes are the byte order mark these are used by the decoding function to detect whether the data is big- or little-endian so that it can adapt accordingly It is worth noting a couple more points about the strencode() method The rst argument (the encoding name) is case-insensitive, and hyphens and underscores in the name are treated as equivalent, so us-ascii and US_ASCII are considered the same There are also many aliases for example, latin , latin1 , latin_1 , ISO-8859-1 , CP819 , and some others are all Latin-1 The method can also accept an optional second argument which is used to tell it how to handle errors For example, we can encode any string into ASCII if we pass a second argument of ignore or replace at the price of losing data, of course or losslessly if we use backslashreplace which replaces non-ASCII characters with \x, \u, and \U escapes For example, artistencode("ascii", "ignore") will produce b'Tage sn' and artistencode("ascii", "replace") will produce b'Tage s n', whereas artistencode("ascii", "backslashreplace") will produce b'Tage \xc5s\xe9n' (We can also get an ASCII string using "{0!a}"format(artist), which produces 'Tage \xc5s\xe9n') The complement of strencode() is bytesdecode() (and bytearraydecode()) which returns a string with the bytes decoded using the given encoding For example:
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>>> print(b"Tage \xc3\x85s\xc3\xa9n"decode("utf8")) Tage s n
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>>> print(b"Tage \xc5s\xe9n"decode("latin1")) Tage s n
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2 Data Types
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The differences between the 8-bit Latin-1, CP850 (an IBM PC encoding), and UTF-8 encodings make it clear that guessing encodings is not likely to be a successful strategy Fortunately, UTF-8 is becoming the de facto standard for plain text les, so later generations may not even know that other encodings ever existed Python py les use UTF-8, so Python always knows the encoding to use with string literals This means that we can type any Unicode characters into our strings providing our editor supports this When Python reads data from external sources such as sockets, it cannot know what encoding is used, so it returns bytes which we can then decode accordingly For text les Python takes a softer approach, using the local encoding unless we specify an encoding explicitly Fortunately, some le formats specify their encoding For example, we can assume that an XML le uses UTF-8, unless the < xml > directive explicitly speci es a different encoding So when reading XML we might extract, say, the rst 1 000 bytes, look for an encoding speci cation, and if found, decode the le using the speci ed encoding, otherwise falling back to decoding using UTF-8 This approach should work for any XML or plain text le that uses any of the single byte encodings supported by Python, except for EBCDIC-based encodings (CP424, CP500) and a few others (CP037, CP864, CP865, CP1026, CP1140, HZ, SHIFT-JIS-2004, SHIFT-JISX0213) Unfortunately, this approach won t work for multibyte encodings (such as UTF-16 and UTF-32) At least two Python packages for automatically detecting a le s encoding are available from the Python Package Index, pypipythonorg/pypi
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