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name = resub(r"( P<forenames>\w+\ ( :\s+\w+\ )*)" r"\s+( P<surname>\w+)", r"\g<surname>, \g<forenames>", name)
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Here we have changed the forenames part of the regex (the rst line) The rst part of the forenames regex matches one or more word characters optionally followed by a period The second part matches at least one whitespace charac-
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ter, then one or more word characters optionally followed by a period, with the whole of this second part itself matching zero or more times When we use alternation (|) with two or more alternatives capturing, we don t know which alternative matched, so we don t know which capture group to retrieve the captured text from We can of course iterate over all the groups to nd the nonempty one, but quite often in this situation the match object s lastindex attribute can give us the number of the group we want We will look at one last example to illustrate this and to give us a little bit more regex practice Suppose we want to nd out what encoding an HTML, XML, or Python le is using We could open the le in binary mode, and read, say, the rst 1 000 bytes into a bytes object We could then close the le, look for an encoding in the bytes, and reopen the le in text mode using the encoding we found or using a fallback encoding (such as UTF-8) The regex engine expects regexes to be supplied as strings, but the text the regex is applied to can be a str, bytes, or bytearray object, and when bytes or bytearray objects are used, all the functions and methods return bytes instead of strings, and the reASCII ag is implicitly switched on For HTML les the encoding is normally speci ed in a <meta> tag (if speci ed at all), for example, <meta http-equiv='Content-Type' content='text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1'/> XML les are UTF-8 by default, but this can be overridden, for example, < xml version="10" encoding="Shift_JIS" > Python 3 les are also UTF-8 by default, but again this can be overridden by including a line such as # encoding: latin1 or # -*- coding: latin1 -*- immediately after the shebang line Here is how we would nd the encoding, assuming that the variable binary is a bytes object containing the rst 1 000 bytes of an HTML, XML, or Python le:
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match = research(r"""( <![-\w]) #1 ( :( :en) coding|charset) #2 ( :=(["']) ([-\w]+)( (1)\1) #3 |:\s*([-\w]+))"""encode("utf8"), binary, reIGNORECASE|reVERBOSE) encoding = matchgroup(matchlastindex) if match else b"utf8"
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To search a bytes object we must specify a pattern that is also a bytes object In this case we want the convenience of using a raw string, so we use one and convert it to a bytes object as the research() function s rst argument
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Conditional matching 498
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The rst part of the regex itself is a lookbehind assertion that says that the match cannot be preceded by a hyphen or a word character The second part matches encoding , coding , or charset and could have been written as ( :encoding|coding|charset) We have made the third part span two lines to emphasise the fact that it has two alternating parts, =(["']) ([-\w]+)( (1)\1)
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and :\s*([-\w]+), only one of which can match The rst of these matches an equals sign followed by one or more word or hyphen characters (optionally enclosed in matching quotes using a conditional match), and the second matches a colon and then optional whitespace followed by one or more word or hyphen characters (Recall that a hyphen inside a character class is taken to be a literal hyphen if it is the rst character; otherwise, it means a range of characters, for example, [0-9]) We have used the reIGNORECASE ag to avoid having to write ( :( :[Ee][Nn]) [Cc][Oo][Dd][Ii][Nn][Gg]|[Cc][Hh][Aa][Rr][Ss][Ee][Tt]) and we have used the reVERBOSE ag so that we can lay out the regex neatly and include comments (in this case just numbers to make the parts easy to refer to in this text) There are three capturing match groups, all in the third part: (["']) which captures the optional opening quote, ([-\w]+) which captures an encoding that follows an equals sign, and the second ([-\w]+) (on the following line) that captures an encoding that follows a colon We are only interested in the encoding, so we want to retrieve either the second or third capture group, only one of which can match since they are alternatives The lastindex attribute holds the index of the last matching capture group (either 2 or 3 when a match occurs in this example), so we retrieve whichever matched, or use a default encoding if no match was made We have now seen all of the most frequently used re module functionality in action, so we will conclude this section by mentioning one last function The resplit() function (or the regex object s split() method) can split strings based on a regex One common requirement is to split a text on whitespace to get a list of words This can be done using resplit(r"\s+", text) which returns a list of words (or more precisely a list of strings, each of which matches \S+) Regular expressions are very powerful and useful, and once they are learned, it is easy to see all text problems as requiring a regex solution But sometimes using string methods is both suf cient and more appropriate For example, we can just as easily split on whitespace by using textsplit() since the strsplit() method s default behavior (or with a rst argument of None) is to split on \s+
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Regular expressions offer a powerful way of searching texts for strings that match a particular pattern, and for replacing such strings with other strings which themselves can depend on what was matched In this chapter we saw that most characters are matched literally and are implicitly quanti ed by {1} We also learned how to specify character classes sets of characters to match and how to negate such sets and include
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