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In the previous subsection the Point class included a distance_from_origin() method, and the Circle class had the area(), circumference(), and edge_distance_from_origin() methods All these methods return a single float value, so from the point of view of a user of these classes they could just as well be data attributes, but read-only, of course In the ShapeAltpy le alternative implementations of Point and Circle are provided, and all the methods mentioned here are provided as properties This allows us to write code like this:
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circle = ShapeCircle(5, 28, 45) circleradius circleedge_distance_from_origin # assumes: import ShapeAlt as Shape # returns: 5 # returns: 480
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Here are the implementations of the getter methods for the ShapeAltCircle class s area and edge_ distance_from_origin properties:
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@property def area(self): return mathpi * (selfradius ** 2) @property def edge_distance_from_origin(self): return abs(selfdistance_from_origin - selfradius)
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If we provide only getters as we have done here, the properties are read-only The code for the area property is the same as for the previous area() method The edge_distance_from_origin s code is slightly different from before because it now accesses the base class s distance_from_origin property instead of calling a distance_from_origin() method The most notable difference to both is the property decorator A decorator is a function that takes a function or method as its argument and returns a decorated version, that is, a version of the function or method that is modi ed in some way A decorator is indicated by preceding its name with an at symbol (@) For now, just treat decorators as syntax in 8 we will see how to create custom decorators The property() decorator function is built-in and takes up to four arguments: a getter function, a setter function, a deleter function, and a docstring The effect of using @property is the same as calling the property() function with just one argument, the getter function We could have created the area property like this:
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def area(self): return mathpi * (selfradius ** 2) area = property(area)
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We rarely use this syntax, since using a decorator is shorter and clearer
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In the previous subsection we noted that no validation is performed on the Circle s radius attribute We can provide validation by making radius into a property This does not require any changes to the Circle__init__() method, and any code that accesses the Circleradius attribute will continue to work unchanged only now the radius will be validated whenever it is set Python programmers normally use properties rather than the explicit getters and setters (eg, getRadius() and setRadius()) that are so commonly used in other object-oriented languages This is because it is so easy to change a data attribute into a property without affecting the use of the class To turn an attribute into a readable/writable property we must create a private attribute where the data is actually held and supply getter and setter methods Here is the radius s getter, setter, and docstring in full:
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@property def radius(self): """The circle's radius >>> circle = Circle(-2) Traceback (most recent call AssertionError: radius must >>> circle = Circle(4) >>> circleradius = -1 Traceback (most recent call AssertionError: radius must >>> circleradius = 6 """ return self__radius
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last): be nonzero and non-negative
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last): be nonzero and non-negative
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@radiussetter def radius(self, radius): assert radius > 0, "radius must be nonzero and non-negative" self__radius = radius
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We use an assert to ensure a nonzero and non-negative radius and store the radius s value in the private attribute self__radius Notice that the getter and setter (and deleter if we needed one) all have the same name it is the decorators that distinguish them, and the decorators rename them appropriately so that no name con icts occur The decorator for the setter may look strange at rst sight Every property that is created has a getter, setter, and deleter attribute, so once the radius property is created using @property, the radiusgetter, radiussetter, and radiusdeleter attributes become available The radiusgetter is set to the
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