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The basic idea of Template View is to embed markers into a static HTML page when it's written When the page is used to service a request, the markers are replaced by the results of some computation, such as a database query This way the page can be laid out in the usual manner, often with WYSIWYG editors, often by people who aren't programmers The markers then communicate with real programs to put in the results
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A lot of tools use Template View As a result this pattern isn't about how to build one yourself, but about how to use one effectively and what the alternative is Embedding the Markers
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There are a number of ways markers can be placed in the HTML One is to use HTML-like tags This works well with WYSIWYG editors because they realize that anything between the angled brackets (<>) is special and so either ignore it or treat it differently If the tags follow the rules for well-formed XML you can also use XML tools on the resulting document (providing your HTML is XHMTL, of course)
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Another way to do this is to use special text markers in the body text WYSIWYG editors treat that as regular text, still ignoring it but probably doing annoying things to it like spell checking The advantage is that the syntax can be easier than the clunky syntax of HTML/XML
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Many environments provide the set of tags you use but more and more platforms now give you the ability to define your own tags and markers so you can design them to fit in with your particular needs
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One of the most popular forms of Template View is a server page such as ASP, JSP, or PHP These actually go a step further than the basic form of a Template View in that they allow you to embed arbitrary programming logic, referred to as scriptlets, into the page In my view, however, this feature is actually a big problem and you're better off limiting yourself to basic Template View behavior when you use server page technology
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The most obvious disadvantage of putting a lot of scriptlets into a page is that it eliminates the possibility of nonprogrammers editing the page This is particularly important when you're using graphic designers for the page design However, the biggest problems of embedding scriptlets into the page come from the fact that a page is poor module for a program Even with an object-oriented language the page construct loses you most of the structural features that make it possible to do a modular design either in OO or in procedural style
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Even worse, putting a lot of scriptlets into the page makes it too easy to mingle the different layers of an enterprise application When domain logic starts turning up on server pages it becomes far too difficult to structure it well and far too easy to duplicate it across different server pages All in all, the worst code I've seen in the last few years has been server page code Helper Object
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The key to avoiding scriptlets is to provide a regular object as a helper to each page This helper has all the real programming logic The page only has calls into it, which simplifies the page and makes it a more pure Template View The resulting simplicity allows nonprogrammers to edit the page and programmers to concentrate on the helper Depending on the actual tool you're using, you can often reduce all the templates in a page to HTML/XML tags, which keeps the page more consistent and more amenable to tool support
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This sounds like a simple and commendable principle, but as ever quite a few dirty issues make things more complicated The simplest markers are those that get some information from the rest of the system and put in the correct place on the page They are easily translated into calls to the helper that result in text, (or something that's trivially turned into text), and the engine places the text on the page Conditional Display
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A more knotty issue is conditional page behavior The simplest case is the situation where something is displayed only if a condition is true That might be some kind of conditional tag along the lines of <IF condition = "$pricedrop > 01"> show some stuff </IF> The trouble with this is that when you start having conditional tags like this, you start going down the path of turning the templates into a programming language in and of themselves This leads you into all the same problems you face when you embed scriptlets in the page If you need a full programming language, you might as well use scriptlets, but you know what I think of that idea!
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As a result, I see purely conditional tags as a bad smell, something you should try to avoid You can't always
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avoid them, but you should try to come up with something more focused than a general purpose <IF> tag
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If you're displaying some text conditionally, one option is to move the condition into the helper The page will then always insert the result of the call into helper It's just that if the condition isn't true the helper will send back an empty string, but this way the helper holds all the logic This approach works best if there's no markup for the returned text or it's enough to return empty markup that gets ignored by the browser
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This doesn't work if, say, you want to highlight good-selling items in a list by putting their names in bold In such a situation you always need the names displayed but sometimes you want the special markup One way to get it is to have the helper generate the markup This keeps all the logic out of the page, at the cost of moving the choice of highlighting mechanism away from the page designer and giving it to the programming code
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In order to keep the choice of HTML in the hands of the page design, you need some form of conditional tag However it's important to look beyond a simple <IF> A good route to go is a focused tag, so rather than a tag that looks like this:
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<IF expression = "isHighSelling()"><B></IF> <property name = "price"/> <IF expression = "isHighSelling()"></B></IF>
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