Other Layering Schemes in Java

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Other Layering Schemes
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I've built my discussion around three primary layers, but my approach to layering isn't the only one that makes sense Other good architectural books have layering schemes, and they all have value It's worth looking at these other schemes and comparing them to what I have here You may find they make more sense for your application
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First up is what I'll call the Brown model, which is discussed in [Brown et al] (see Table 81) This model has five layers: presentation, controller/mediator, domain, data mapping, and data source Essentially it places additional mediating layers between the basic three layers The controller/mediator mediates between the presentation and domain layers, while the data mapping layer mediates between the domain and data source layers
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I find that the mediating layers are useful some of the time but not all of the time, so I describe them in terms of patterns The Application Controller (379) is the mediator between the presentation and domain, and the Data Mapper (165) is the mediator between the data source and the domain For organizing this book, I've described Application Controller (379) in the presentation section ( 14) and Data Mapper (165) in the data source section ( 10)
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Table 81 Brown Layers
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Brown Presentation Controller/mediator Domain Data mapping Data source
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Fowler Presentation Presentation (Application Controller (379)) Domain Data source (Data Mapper (165)) Data source
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For me, then, the addition of mediating layers, frequently but not always useful, represents an optional extra in the design My approach is to always think of the three base layers, see if any of them is getting too complex, and if so add the mediating layer to separate the functionality
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Another good layering scheme for J2EE appears in CoreJ2EE patterns [Alur et al] (see Table 82) Here the
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layers are client, presentation, business, integration, and resource Simple correspondences exist for the business and integration layers The resource layer comprises external services that the integration layer connects to The main difference is that they split the presentation layer between the part that runs on the client (client) and the part that runs on a server (presentation) This is often a useful split, but again it's not one that's needed all the time
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The Microsoft DNA architect [Kirtland] defines three layers: presentation, business, and data access, that correspond pretty directly to the three layers I use here (see Table 83) The biggest shift occurs in the way that data is passed up from the data access layers In Microsoft DNA all the layers operate on record sets that result from SQL queries issued by the data access layer This introduces an apparent coupling in that both the business and the presentation layers know about the database
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Table 82 Core J2EE Layers
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Core J2EE Client Presentation Business Integration Resource
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Fowler Presentation that runs on client (eg, rich-client systems) Presentation that runs on server (eg, HTTP handlers, server pages) Domain Data source External resource that data source communicates with
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Table 83 Microsoft DNA Layers
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Microsoft DNA Presentation Business Data access
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Fowler Presentation Domain Data source
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The way I look at this is that in DNA the record set acts as a Data Transfer Object (401) between layers The business layer can modify the record set on its way up to the presentation or even create one itself (that is rare) Although this form of communication is in many ways unwieldy, it has the big advantage of allowing the presentation to use data-aware GUI controls, even on data that's been modified by the business layer
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In this case the domain layer is structured in the form of Table Modules (125) and the data source layer uses Table Data Gateways (144)
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[Marinescu] has five layers (see Table 84) The presentation is split into two layers, reflecting the separation of an Application Controller (379) The domain is also split, with a Service Layer (133) built on a Domain Model (116), reflecting the common idea of splitting a domain layer into two parts This is a common approach, reinforced by the limitations of EJB as a Domain Model (116) (see page 118)
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