The Presentation Layer in Java

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The Presentation Layer
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In many ways the presentation is relatively independent of the choice of the lower layers Your first question is whether to provide a rich-client interface or an HTML browser interface A rich client will give you a nicer UI, but then you need a certain amount of control and deployment of your clients My preference is to pick an HTML browser if you can get away with it and a rich client if that's not possible Rich clients will usually take more effort to program, but that's because they tend to be more sophisticated, not so much because of the inherent complexities of the technology
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I haven't explored any rich-client patterns in this book, so if you choose one I don't really have anything further to say
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If you go the HTML route, you have to decide how to structure your application I certainly recommend the Model View Controller (330) as the underpinning for your design That done, you're left with two decisions, one for the controller and one for the view
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Your tooling may well make your choice for you If you use Visual Studio, the easiest way to go is Page Controller (333) and Template View (350) If you use Java, you have a choice of Web frameworks to consider Popular at the moment is Struts, which will lead you to a Front Controller (344) and a Template View (350)
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Given a freer choice, I'd recommend Page Controller (333) if your site is more document oriented, particularly if you have a mix of static and dynamic pages More complex navigation and UI lead you toward a Front Controller (344)
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On the view front the choice between Template View (350) and Transform View (361) depends on whether your team uses server pages or XSLT in programming Template Views (350) have the edge at the moment, although I rather like the added testability of Transform View (361) If you have the need to display a common site with multiple looks and feels, you should consider Two Step View (365)
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How you communicate with the lower layers depends on what kind of layers they are and whether they're always going to be in the same process My preference is to have everything run in one process if you can that way you don't have to worry about slow inter-process calls If you can't do that, you should wrap your domain layer with Remote Facade (388) and use Data Transfer Object (401) to communicate to the Web server
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Some Technology-Specific Advice
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In most of this book I'm trying to bring out the common experience of doing projects on many different
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platforms Experience with Forte, CORBA, and Smalltalk translates very effectively into developing with Java and NET The only reason I've concentrating on Java and NET environments is that they look like the most common platforms for enterprise application development in the future (Although I'd like to see the dynamically typed scripting languages, in particular Python and Ruby, give them a run for their money)
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In this section I want to apply the above advice to these two platforms As soon as I do this, though, I'm in danger of dating myself Technologies change much more rapidly than these patterns, so as you read remember that I'm writing in early 2002, when everyone is saying that economic recovery is just around the corner
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Java and J2EE
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Currently the big debate in the Java world is exactly how valuable Enterprise Java Beans are After as many final drafts as The Who had farewell concerts, the EJB 20 specification has finally appeared But you don't need EJB to build a good J2EE application, despite what EJB vendors tell you You can do a great deal with POJOs (plain old Java objects) and JDBC
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The design alternatives for J2EE vary in terms of the patterns you're using, and again they break out by domain logic
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If you use Transaction Script (110) on top of some form of Gateway (466), the common approach with EJB at the moment is to use session beans as a Transaction Script (110) and entity beans as a Row Data Gateway (152) This is a pretty reasonable architecture if your domain logic is sufficiently modest However, one problem with such a beany approach is that it's hard to get rid of the EJB server if you find you don't need it and you don't want to cough up the license fees The non-EJB approach is a POJO for the Transaction Script (110) on top of either a Row Data Gateway (152) or a Table Data Gateway (144) If JDBC 20 row sets get more acceptance, that's a reason to use them as Record Sets (508) and that leads to a Table Data Gateway (144) If you're not sure about EJB, you can use the non-EJB approach and wrap the entity beans with session beans acting as Remote Facades (388)
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If you're using a Domain Model (116), the current orthodoxy is to use entity beans If your Domain Model (116) is pretty simple and matches your database well, doing that makes reasonable sense and your entity beans will then be Active Records (160) It's still good practice to wrap your entity beans with session beans acting as Remote Facades (388) (although you can also think of CMP as a Data Mapper (165)) However, if your Domain Model (116) is more complex, you want it to be entirely independent of the EJB structure so that you can write, run, and test your domain logic without having to deal with the vagaries of the EJB container In that model I would use POJOs for the Domain Model (116) and wrap them with session beans acting as Remote Facades (388) If you choose not to use EJB, I would run the whole app in the Web server and avoid any remote calls between presentation and domain If you're using POJO Domain Model (116), I would also use POJOs for the Data Mappers (165) either using an O/R mapping tool or rolling something myself if I felt up to it
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If you use entity beans in any context, avoid giving them a remote interface I never understood the point of giving entity beans a remote interface in the first place Entity beans are usually used as Domain Models (116) or as Row Data Gateways (152) In either case they need a fine-grained interface to play those roles well As I hope I've drilled into your psyche, however, that a remote interface must always be coarse-grained, so keep your entity beans local only (The exception to this is the Composite Entity pattern from [Alur et al], which is a different way of using entity beans and not one I find very useful)
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At the moment the Table Module (125) isn't common in the Java world It will be interesting to see if more tooling surrounds the JDBC row set if it does this pattern could become a viable approach In this case the POJO approach fits best, although you can also wrap the Table Module (125) with session beans acting as Remote Facades (388) and returning Record Sets (508)
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