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Our First Search
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ou: People
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cn: Babs Jensen uid: bjensen
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uid=bjensen, ou=People, o=Airiuscom
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cn: Karl Jensen uid: kjensen
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FIGURE 5-1 Typical directory architecture
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2 ONE, represented by the constant LDAPConnectionSCOPE_ONE, is used to indicate searching all entries one level under the base DN but not including the base DN Figure 5-3 depicts the scope of a one level search 3 SUBTREE, represented by the constant LDAPConnectionSCOPE_SUB, is used to indicate searching of all entries at all levels under and including the speci ed base DN Figure 5-4 depicts the scope of a subtree search The base DN and scope parameters can dramatically affect the number of records returned from a query It is important to understand what is involved in using these arguments
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Search base: o=Airiuscom Search scope: SCOPE_BASE
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cn: Babs Jensen uid: bjensen
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FIGURE 5-2 Scope BASE search
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Searching with the SDK
Search base: o=Airiuscom Search scope: SCOPE_ONE
o: Airiuscom
ou: People
ou: Groups
cn: Babs Jensen uid: bjensen
cn: Karl Jensen uid: kjensen
FIGURE 5-3 Scope ONE search
Filter
The search lter is the query string It is used to lter the entries in the directory and produce the desired set of matching records Filters are built using parentheses and combinations of the symbols &, |, and !, which represent AND, OR, and NOT, respectively If you wanted to locate all people with tony at the beginning of their names, the following lter would do the trick:
(&(objectclass=person)(cn=tony*))
This expression represents a search for all entries with an object class of type person in which the common name begins with tony Like most other LDAP attri-
Search base: o=Airiuscom Search scope: SCOPE_SUB
o: Airiuscom
ou: People
ou: Groups
cn: Babs Jensen uid: bjensen
cn: Karl Jensen uid: kjensen
FIGURE 5-4 Scope SUBTREE search
Our First Search
butes, the cn attribute has case-insensitive syntax, so replacing tony* with Tony* or TONY* would yield the same results Search lters can be nested to any level:
(&(objectclass=person)(|(cn=sam carter) (cn=tony*)))
This lter says to nd all entries with object class person in which the common name is Sam Carter or begins with tony Complex lters can be built using the operators and corresponding parentheses A logical operator should appear before the parenthesis enclosing the group of compares it affects You can specify the order for operators by nesting parentheses Table 5-1 lists all the operators for a search lter These options can be combined using parentheses, as shown in the examples already given Wild cards can also be used for lters for example, (cn=tony*)
Attributes
Among the attributes of an LDAP entry for a person are cn, sn, and givenName In the LDIF record for Babs Jensen that follows, the attribute names are marked in bold
TABLE 5-1 Search lter operators
OPERATOR MEANING
OR AND NOT
| & ! = >=
Entry attribute equals value (eg, cn=John Doe) Entry attribute is greater than or equal to value (eg, cn>=John Doe, which would nd Tom Doe among other entries) Entry attribute is less than or equal to value All entries that have a value for the attribute (eg, cn=* for all entries with a cn value) Entries that approximately match the value a soundex match for values that sound like the value (eg, cn~=olson to match Olson, Olsson, and Oleson)
<= =*
Searching with the SDK
Each entry can contain numerous attributes the speci c ones determined by the object classes of the entry Some attributes are optional for a particular object class, and some are required, as discussed in 2
dn: uid=bjensen, ou=People, o=airiuscom cn: Babs Jensen sn: Jensen givenName: Barbara objectclass: top objectclass: person l: Cupertino uid: bjensen mail: bjensen@airiuscom telephoneNumber: +1 408 555 1862 roomNumber: 0209 userPassword: hifalutin
The search attributes in a search request represent the values to return for records matching the lter, starting at the base DN and progressing through the scope level desired You should request only attributes that you need Requesting all attributes for a large result set can signi cantly increase processing time and memory usage Note that specifying null for the attributes eld of the search or read methods of LDAPConnection means to return all the attributes associated with each entry If you wish to retrieve no attributes for an entry, use the constant LDAPConnectionNO_ATTRS for the attributes parameter LDAP attributes are either user attributes or operational attributes User attributes appear in the directory only if they have been explicitly added to it, by the addition or modi cation of entries Operational attributes are created by the server itself Examples of operational attributes are createTimeStamp (the time when the entry was created) and numSubordinates (the number of direct children of the node) If you specify null for attributes in a search, operational attributes are not returned Each operational attribute to be returned must be speci ed explicitly in the list of attributes If you wish to receive operational attributes in addition to all user attributes, use the constant LDAPConnectionALL_USER_ATTRS as one of the attributes for example:
String[] attrs1 = { LDAPConnectionALL_USER_ATTRS, "createTimeStamp", "numSubordinates"}; String[] attrs2 = { "cn", "objectclass", "createTimeStamp", "numSubordinates"};
The String array attrs1 indicates to return all user attributes for this entry, as well as the two operational attributes createTimeStamp and numSubordinates The