Using LDAP URLs in Java in Java

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Using LDAP URLs in Java
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You can create and use an LDAPUrl object for a search as in the following example:
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LDAPUrl url = new LDAPUrl( "ldap://myhostacmecom:389/ou=People,o=Airiuscom cn,mail cn=adam*" ); try { LDAPSearchResults res = LDAPConnectionsearch( url ); // Process the results } catch ( LDAPException e ) { }
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You can also specify the components of the LDAP URL individually when constructing the LDAPUrl object:
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String[] attrs = { "cn", "mail" }; LDAPUrl url = new LDAPUrl( "myhostacmecom", 389, "ou=People,o=Airiuscom", attrs, LDAPConnectionSCOPE_SUB, "cn=adam*" );
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One advantage to using the constructor that takes individual components is that the baseDN and filterString elds are automatically encoded if necessary For example, o=Acme Parts = Us is encoded internally as o=Acme%20Parts%20%3D%20Us There are methods to extract the various components of the LDAP URL:
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String[] getAttributeArray() String getDN()
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String getFilter() String getHost() int getPort() int getScope() String getUrl() - this returns a String that is encoded for use as an LDAP URL
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There are also utility methods to encode or decode any String for use as an LDAP URL:
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static String decode( String encodedString ) static String encode( String unencodedString )
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If you have done Internet programming in Java before, you may be familiar with the javanetURL and the javanetURLConnection classes With those standard classes you can do things such as the following:
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URL url = new URL( "http://javasuncom/indexhtml" ); InputStream in = urlgetURLConnection()getInputStream(); OutputStream in = urlgetURLConnection()getOutputStream();
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You can then write to and read from the streams You can also let the standard content handler classes read from the URL and instantiate an appropriate object if the server supplies type information and there is a handler available for the content type:
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Object o = urlgetContent();
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LDAP URLs are more limited An LDAP URL can be used only to express a search and not any kind of update, and it does not imply a connection that can supply a stream to the application for reading or writing Executing LDAPConnectionsearch(LDAPUrl url) causes a connection to be established, used for the single search operation, and then closed LDAP URLs do not provide a means to supply authentication credentials, so any search operation will be unauthenticated (anonymous) when using the SDK Despite these limitations, you may nd an LDAPUrl convenient for expressing a search If authentication is required, you can unpack the LDAPUrl components and use your already authenticated LDAPConnection object to do a search:
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// ld is an LDAPConnection that has been connected and authenticated // earlier
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// url is an LDAPUrl that was created earlier try { LDAPSearchResults res = ldsearch( urlgetDN(), urlgetScope(), urlgetFilter(), urlgetAttributeArray(), false ); while ( reshasMoreElements() ) { // Process the results } } catch ( LDAPException e ) { }
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Directory users in the United States may never have to re ect on the fact that string data can be represented in many different character sets Directory servers that comply with LDAPv3 transmit all string data in the UTF8 character set, a variant of Unicode UTF8 has the pleasant characteristic that the ASCII characters are represented with the same 7-bit values (one character per byte) as in ASCII That means that ASCII text can easily be added to a directory, searched, and updated; the data is the same in the UTF8 character set Things are trickier beyond the ASCII characters Programmers and users in some European countries may expect to be able to use characters from the latin-1 character set for example, , , , and users in Japan might want to input data in shift-jis or EUC The good news is that UTF8 can accommodate all the characters anyone can come up with for all these character sets; the bad news is that any data in those character sets must be converted to UTF8 before being stored in the server, and it must be converted back when reading from the server Suppose you have an LDIF le with data you would like to add to a directory If the data was typed in with a German-language or Japanese-language word processor, it will most likely contain characters that are not valid in UTF8 You can add the contents of the le to the directory with java LDAPModify, but you will not be able to search for values containing those characters; if you search for something else and receive attribute values containing the characters, most likely the results will be truncated The solution is to run the LDIF le through a converter (to UTF8) before adding it Clients of the C LDAP API are expected to convert their string data to UTF8 (if it is not in ASCII) before passing it to any API function, and to convert it back when receiving data from the server Users of the Java LDAP API are much more fortunate Character sets are handled in the Java language, the Java class libraries, and Directory SDK for Java as follows: