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The process of distributing work to UEs such that each UE involved in a parallel computation takes approximately the same amount of time There are two major forms of load balancing In static load balancing, the distribution of work is determined before the computation starts In dynamic load balancing, the load is modified as the computation proceeds (that is, during runtime)
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Locality The extent to which the computations carried out by a PE use data that is associated with (that is, is close to) that PE For example, in many dense linear algebra problems, the key to high performance is to decompose matrices into blocks and then structure the calculations in terms of these blocks so data brought into a processor's cache is used many times This is an example of an algorithm transformation that increases locality in a computation
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Massively parallel processor (MPP) A distributed memory parallel computer designed to scale to hundreds if not thousands of processors To better support high scalability, the computer elements or nodes in the MPP machine are custom designed for use in a scalable computer This typically includes tight integration between the computing elements and the scalable network
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Message Passing Interface (MPI) A standard message passing interface adopted by most MPP vendors as well as by the cluster computing community The existence of a widely supported standard enhances program portability; an MPI based program developed for one platform should also run on any other platform for which an implementation of MPI exists
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MIMD (Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data) One of the categories of architectures in Flynn's taxonomy of computer architectures In a MIMD system, each PE has its own stream of instructions operating on its own data The vast majority of modern parallel systems use the MIMD architecture
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Monitor Monitors are a synchronization mechanism originally proposed by Hoare [Hoa74] A monitor is an ADT implementation that guarantees mutually exclusive access to its internal data
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Conditional synchronization is provided by condition variables See also [condition variable] MPI See [Message Passing Interface] MPP See [massively parallel processor] Multicomputer A parallel computer based on a distributed memory, MIMD parallel architecture The system appears to the user as a single computer
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Multiprocessor A parallel computer with multiple processors that share an address space
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Mutex A mutual exclusion lock A mutex serializes the execution of multiple threads
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Node Common term for the computational elements that make up a distributed memory parallel machine Each node has its own memory and at least one processor; that is, a node can be a uniprocessor or some type of multiprocessor
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NUMA This term is used to describe a shared memory computer system where not all memory is equidistant from all processors Thus, the time required to access memory locations is not uniform, and for good performance the programmer usually needs to be concerned with the placement of data in the memory
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Opaque type A type that can be used without knowledge of the internal representation Instances of the opaque type can be created and manipulated via a well defined interface The data types used for MPI communicators and OpenMP locks are examples
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OpenMP A specification defining compiler directives, library routines, and environment variables that can be used to express shared memory parallelism in Fortran and C/C++ programs OpenMP implementations exist for a large variety of platforms
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OR parallelism An execution technique in parallel logic languages in which multiple clauses can be evaluated in parallel For example, consider a problem with two clauses: A: B, C and A: E,F The clauses can execute in parallel until one of them succeeds
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Parallel file system A file system that is visible to any processor in the system and can be read and written by multiple UEs simultaneously Although a parallel file system appears to the computer system as a single file system, it is physically distributed among a number of disks To be effective, the aggregate throughput for read and write must be scalable
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Parallel overhead The time spent in a parallel computation managing the computation rather than computing results Contributors to parallel overhead include thread creation and scheduling, communication, and synchronization
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PE See [processing element] Peer to peer computing A distributed computing model in which each node has equal standing among the collection of
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nodes In the most typical usage of this term, the same capabilities are offered by each node, and any node can initiate a communication session with another node This contrasts with, for example, client server computing The capabilities that are shared in peer to peer computing include file sharing as well as computation
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POSIX The Portable Operating System Interface as defined by the Portable Applications Standards Committee (PASC) of the IEEE Computer Society Whereas other operating systems follow some of the POSIX standards, the primary use of this term refers to the family of standards that define the interfaces in UNIX and UNIX like (for example, Linux) operating systems
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Precedence graph A way of representing the order constraints among a collection of statements The nodes of the graph represent the statements, and there is a directed edge from node A to node B if statement A must be executed before statement B A precedence graph with a cycle represents a collection of statements that cannot be executed without deadlock
Process A collection of resources that enable the execution of program instructions These resources can include virtual memory, I/O descriptors, a runtime stack, signal handlers, user and group IDs, and access control tokens A more high level view is that a process is a "heavyweight" UE with its own address space See also [unit of execution] See also [thread] Process migration Changing the processor responsible for running a process during execution Process migration is commonly used to dynamically balance the load on multiprocessor systems It is also used to support fault tolerant computing by moving processes away from failing processors
Processing element (PE) A generic term used to reference a hardware element that executes a stream of instructions The context defines what unit of hardware is considered a PE Consider a cluster of SMP workstations In some programming environments, each workstation is viewed as executing a
single instruction stream; in this case, a PE is a workstation A different programming environment running on the same hardware, however, might view each processor of the individual workstations as executing an individual instruction stream; in this case, the PE is the processor rather than the workstation
Programming environment Programming environments provide the basic tools and APIs needed to construct programs A programming environment implies a particular abstraction of the computer system called a programming model
Programming model Abstraction of a computer system, for example the von Neumann model used in traditional sequential computers For parallel computing, there are many possible models typically reflecting different ways processors can be interconnected The most common are based on shared memory, distributed memory with message passing, or a hybrid of the two
Pthreads Another name for POSIX threads, that is, the definition of threads in the various POSIX standards See also [POSIX] PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) A message passing library for parallel computing PVM played an important role in the history of parallel computing as it was the first portable message passing programming environment to gain widespread use in the parallel computing community It has largely been superseded by MPI
Race condition An error condition peculiar to parallel programs in which the outcome of a program changes as the relative scheduling of UEs varies