that can be obtained by running an algorithm on a system of P processors is
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where is the serial fraction of the program, and T(n) running on n processors See also [speedup] See also [serial fraction] AND parallelism This is one of the main techniques for introducing parallelism into a logic language Consider the goal A: B,C,D (read "A follows from B and C and D"), which means that goal A succeeds if and only if all three subgoals B and C and D succeed In AND parallelism, subgoals B, C, and D are evaluated in parallel
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API See [application programming interface] Application Programming Interface (API) An API defines the calling conventions and other information needed for one software module (typically an application program) to utilize the services provided by another software module MPI is an API for parallel programming The term is sometimes used more loosely to define the notation used by programmers to express a particular functionality in a program For example, the OpenMP specification is referred to as an API An important aspect of an API is that any program coded to it can be recompiled to run on any system that supports that API
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Atomic Atomic has slightly different meanings in different contexts An atomic operation at the hardware level is uninterruptible, for example load and store, or atomic test and set instructions In the database world, an atomic operation (or transaction) is one that appears to execute completely or not at all In parallel programming, an atomic operation is one for which sufficient synchronization has been provided that it cannot be interfered with by other UEs Atomic operations also must be guaranteed to terminate (for example, no infinite loops)
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A language feature, available in Java 2 15, that provides automatic conversion of data of a primitive type to the corresponding wrapper type for example, from int to Integer
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Bandwidth The capacity of a system, usually expressed as items per second In parallel computing, the most common usage of the term "bandwidth" is in reference to the number of bytes per second that can be moved across a network link A parallel program that generates relatively small numbers of huge messages may be limited by the bandwidth of the network, in which case it is called a bandwidth limited program See also [bisection bandwidth] Barrier A synchronization mechanism applied to groups of UEs, with the property that no UE in the group can pass the barrier until all UEs in the group have reached the barrier In other words, UEs arriving at the barrier suspend or block until all UEs have arrived; they can then all proceed
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Beowulf cluster A cluster built from PCs running the Linux operating system Clusters were already well established when Beowulf clusters were first built in the early 1990s Prior to Beowulf, however, clusters were built from workstations running UNIX By dropping the cost of cluster hardware, Beowulf clusters dramatically increased access to cluster computing
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Bisection bandwidth The bidirectional capacity of a network between two equal sized partitions of nodes The cut across the network is taken at the narrowest point in each bisection of the network
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Broadcast Sending a message to all members of a group of recipients, usually all UEs participating in a computation
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A relatively small region of memory that is local to a processor and is considerably faster than the computer's main memory Cache hierarchies consisting of one or more levels of cache are essential in modern computer systems Because processors are so much faster than the computer's main memory, a processor can run at a significant fraction of full speed only if the data can be loaded into cache before it is needed and that data can be reused during a calculation Data is moved between the cache and the computer's main memory in small blocks of bytes called cache lines An entire cache line is moved when any byte within the memory mapped to the cache line is accessed Cache lines are removed from the cache according to some protocol when the cache becomes full and space is needed for other data, or when they are accessed by some other processor Usually each processor has its own cache (though sometimes multiple processors share a level of cache), so keeping the caches coherent (that is, ensuring that all processors have the same view of memory through their distinct caches) is an issue that must be dealt with by computer architects and compiler writers Programmers must be aware of caching issues when optimizing the performance of software
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ccNUMA Cache coherent NUMA A NUMA model where data is coherent at the level of the cache See also [NUMA] Cluster Any collection of distinct computers that are connected and used as a parallel computer, or to form a redundant system for higher availability The computers in a cluster are not specialized to cluster computing and could, in principle, be used in isolation as standalone computers In other words, the components making up the cluster, both the computers and the networks connecting them, are not custom built for use in the cluster Examples include Ethernet connected workstation networks and rack mounted workstations dedicated to parallel computing See also [workstation farm] Collective communication A high level operation involving a group of UEs and having at its core the cooperative exchange of information between the UEs The high level operation might be a pure communication event (for example, a broadcast) or it might include some computation (for example, a reduction) See also [broadcast] See also [reduction] Concurrent execution A condition in which two or more UEs are active and making progress simultaneously This can be either because they are being executed at the same time on different PEs, or because the
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