Solution 2: Multiple Areas in Java

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Solution 2: Multiple Areas
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Any digital nonrectangular image can be partitioned into a finite number of rectangular parts For example, the circle in Figure 162 has been divided into three rectangles If your image has any extra pixels along its edges, they can be divided into a rectangle that is only 1 pixel square Figure 162 Multiple areas of collision
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When your program tries to detect whether two sprites have collided, it can check every rectangle of one sprite against every rectangle of another This type of collision detection is 100% accurate However, the more rectangles your sprite is made up of, the more checking iterations there are that must be performed Area collision detection can be implemented similarly to level detection Simply create an array of quadruplets (x, y, width and height), as in Listing 163 Listing 163 Creating Collision Areas
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protected int areas[][] = {{2, 1, 6, 3} , {3, 4, 4, 5} , {0, 9, 10, 14}}; public boolean collide(Sprite sprite) { for (int i = 0; i < areaslength; i++) { if ((areas[i][0] + areas[i][2]) > spritegetX() && areas[i][0] < spritegetX() &&
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(areas[i][1] + areas[i][3]) > spritegetY() && areas[i][1] < spritegetY()) return true; } return false; }
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The collide() method returns true if at least one of the parts collide with another sprite When you actually build your game, you should experiment with various types of collision detection and various numbers of areas Because current Java devices are quite slow, you might want to limit your sprites to one or two areas at most
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The Sprite Manager
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A sprite manager's main jobs are to manage a list of different sprites and to provide the capability to manipulate those sprites When defining the manager, the following methods should be implemented:
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addSprite(Sprite sprite) Adds a new sprite into the manager at the end of the
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insertSprite(Sprite sprite, int position) Adds a new sprite into the
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manager at the given position
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getSpritePosition(Sprite sprite) Returns the sprite's position number associated to the given sprite The first sprite is at the position 0 The value 1 is returned
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if the sprite was not found
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getSprite(int index) Returns the sprite associated with the given index deleteSprite(Sprite sprite) Deletes the given sprite from the manager deleteSprite(int position) Deletes a sprite from the given position from the
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paint(Graphics g) Draws all the sprites onto the given Graphics object The sprites are drawn in order from 0 to getLength()-1 size() Returns the number of sprites in the manager
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Listing 164 shows the implementation of the SpriteManager class, using all the preceding methods Listing 164 The SpriteManager Class
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import javautil*; import javaxmicroeditionlcdui*; public class SpriteManager { private Vector list; public SpriteManager() { list = new Vector(); } public void addSprite(Sprite sprite) { listaddElement(sprite);
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} public void insertSprite(Sprite sprite, int position) { listinsertElementAt(sprite, position); } public int getSpritePosition(Sprite sprite) { for (int i = 0; i < listsize(); i++) { Sprite comparableSprite = (Sprite)listelementAt(i); if (spriteequals(comparableSprite)) return i; } return -1; } public Sprite getSprite(int index) { return (Sprite)listelementAt(index); } public void deleteSprite(Sprite sprite) { deleteSprite(getSpritePosition(sprite)); } public void deleteSprite(int position) { listremoveElementAt(position); } public int size() { return listsize(); } public void paint(Graphics g) { for (int i = 0; i < listsize(); i++) { Sprite sprite = (Sprite)listelementAt(i); spritepaint(g); } } }
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The manager uses a Vector object for storing sprites If sprites need to have unique IDs, Vector could be replaced with Hashtable Your game can use several managers to hold each group of sprites For example, you might want to organize things so that you have one manager for opponent vehicles, one for obstacles, one for background elements, and so on Sprites are always added at the end of the list All searches are linear, and are fast enough for small amount of sprites For larger games, you can implement more advanced search mechanisms such as sorting via binary trees The paint() method simply draws all the sprites in the list in order as they're put in the list