SMS Specifics in Java

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SMS Specifics
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URL: http://wwwetsiorg/ SMS was created by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) SMS messages are pure text On GSM networks, a standard text message can be a maximum of 160 characters long Each character is usually defined by a 7-bit alphabet similar to ASCII that includes major punctuation, accented letters, mathematic symbols, and numerals Some other networks permit a maximum of 190 characters There are two formats in which you can send and receive SMS messages:
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Additionally, there are specialized versions of SMS that enable instant pop-up messages, as well as the capability to tack on multimedia and contact information Some of these formats will be discussed later in this chapter SMS Text Mode
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SMS's Text mode is a preset and simplified encoding of the bit stream represented by the PDU mode In other words, Text mode is the standard way in which English alphanumeric messages can be sent back and forth Most mobile phones support Text mode, and it acts as a kind of SMS lowest common denominator standard Protocol Description Unit (PDU) Mode Using the full PDU mode, any type of encoding can be created and implemented Using PDU mode adds a whole bunch of extra headers to the message, increasing the message size and telling the mobile phone exactly how to encode the alphabet the way the sender intended it Special SMS messages can be delivered from one carrier to another using PDU mode Smart Messaging URL: http://wwwforumnokiacom Smart Messaging is an enhanced SMS format designed by Nokia Many other phones support similar enhanced messages These usually use a special 8-bit alphabet, with a maximum of 140 characters per message These 8-bit characters are usually designated for digital data, not text Data that can be sent over SMS depends on the carrier, but typical data formats enable the following:
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Simple black and white images New operator logos For example, if you change your phone service from Sprint to Nextel, then the Nextel logo can be sent down using SMS "Musical notes" for new ring tones Business cards and other contact information Calendar and scheduling information Over-the-air provisioning of WAP access, enabling a carrier to send bookmark lists, WAP homepage and server settings, and other WAP options The WAP gateway can send the phone URLs using SMS The phone is smart enough to grab the URL from the SMS message text and request the appropriate WML document
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Unicode Messages Additionally, 16-bit messages are enabled on many networks This format can handle a maximum of only 70 characters per message The extended alphabet is used to support the Unicode (UCS2) format, capable of showing characters from alphabets such as Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Cyrillic, Hebrew, and Arabic More information about Unicode can be found at http://wwwunicodeorg/ Flash SMS Many mobile phones support Flash SMS messages These messages will literally flash up on the screen as soon as they arrive, without the need for the user to navigate through option menus This provides more of a classic "instant messenger" feel
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Most Nokia, Siemens, Ericsson, and Motorola phones support this type of messaging The user usually has the option to turn Flash SMS off if she finds it distracting To send a Flash SMS, the message data-coding scheme must be set to 16-bit Unicode with the message class 0, and the message should start with the character 0001 Thus, the message length itself can only be 69 Unicode characters
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Short Message Service Centers (SMSCs)
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All SMS messages are routed through a central server, known as a Short Message Service Center (SMSC) The SMSC is software that basically acts as a post office It sits atop the operator's network and queues up messages, bills the sender, routes messages to phones, notifies the sender if the message can't be sent, and even sends return receipts when the messages are read The reason an SMSC is needed is that mobile phones are not always on Users often switch their phones off, are out of the network coverage area, or run out of battery power The SMSC stores each message and queues it up, trying to send it out as soon as possible If the phone is unavailable, the SMSC will periodically keep trying After the message is successfully sent, the SMSC deletes the message from its cache and continues on with other work Most operators permit you to tap into their SMSC using the Web or other open Internet connections Every provider uses different protocols for their SMSC For example, CMG uses a protocol called UCP/EMI, Logica uses SMPP, SEMA uses SMS2000, and Nokia uses CIMD NOTE Game developers who plan on sending a lot of messages may need special permission or access from various carriers Carriers are also sensitive about the type of information you send over their network, and want to avoid anything that can be construed as unwanted advertising, or spam Figure 51 shows the typical SMS architecture: Either a phone or Web server gateway machine can connect to a SMSC to send or receive SMS messages Figure 51 The SMS architecture
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