Doing Your Own Packing in Java

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Doing Your Own Packing
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You can pack a lot of information into a byte For example, you can fit 8 Boolean flag values into each of the 8 bits The following code line represents false, true, true, false, false, false, true, true:
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To set this, you could use a function like the following code fragment, passing in an array of 8 Booleans:
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byte setFlag(boolean[] flag) { // temp starts off as 00000000 byte temp = 0; for (int i=0; i<8; i++) { // Set the last bit to 1 if true if (flag[i])
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temp += 1; // Shift the bits over to the left temp = temp << 1; } return temp; }
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Then you can read the values by masking out bits using the bitwise and command (&) For example, to see if the seventh bit is true or false, you can mask your byte with 01000000 (64), and see if the result is 0 (false) or 64 (true):
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01100011 & 01000000 = 01000000 (99 & 64 = 64)
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You can also shift the bits over a set amount and compare the first bit For example, this method returns whether a given flag is true or false:
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boolean getFlag(byte b,int location) { return (((b >> location) & 1) == 1); }
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For the most part you shouldn't need to roll your own bit-packing routines The DataInputStream and DataOutputStream, discussed a bit later in this chapter, do a decent job
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Many people adore eXtensible Markup Language (XML), which formats documents in a highly organized and readable way XML has some great advantages For example, it's really easy to figure out what's in this game message:
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<move><sprite>car</sprite><x>10</x><y>15</y></move>
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However, XML is very verbose and will create ultra-heavy data packets There are, however, ways to compress and otherwise optimize XML data If you want your MIDlet to parse XML data, you can choose various types of parsers:
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Validating The document is checked against a DTD This requires a lot of extra code and time to validate It is not recommended that you ever use a validating XML parser Non-Validating The document is just read in Single-Step Document Parser This will parse an entire document and create a document-type-definition (DTD) object that contains a sense of all nodes, children, and branches The root of the tree is called kXMLElement, and each node is an instance You can grab nodes using methods such as getChildren(), getTagName(), and getContents() This type of parsing takes tons of time and uses up scads of memory because the entire document must be kept around Incremental This will take in a line and parse it, putting the data into temporary variables A sense of the entire document is not retained This is the smallest and fastest way to parse XML
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There are several good non-validating parsers available for MIDP
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kXML A small incremental parser You can download it from http://wwwkxmlorg/ and include the kXML classes with your application NanoXML A single step parser Grab a port of NanoXML for J2ME from http://nanoxmlsourceforgenet/ You will also need a special version of the XMLElementjava file ported for J2ME: http://wwwericgiguerecom/microjava/cldc_xmlhtml
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To parse a document incrementally using kXML, just use code similar to the following:
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InputStreamReader xmldata = new InputStreamReader( copenInputStream()); XmlParser parser = new XmlParser(new InputStreamReader(xmldata)); try { boolean keepParsing = true; while( keepParsing ) { ParseEvent event = parserread(); switch( eventgetType() ) { case XmlSTART_TAG: // handle the start of a XML tag break; case XmlEND_TAG: // handle the end of a XML tag break; case XmlTEXT: // handle the text inside a tag break; case XmlEND_DOCUMENT: // document done keepParsing = false; break; } } } catch( javaioIOException e ){ }
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Encoding with DataOutputStream and DataInputStream
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Perhaps the easiest way of sending and receiving data is to use Java's predefined data types For example, nothing could be easier than sending an integer, a String, and a boolean, and then reading them directly back in The DataOutputStream and DataInputStream classes make this immensely easy For example, to write out your variables
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DataOutputStream os = new DataOutputStream(copenOutputStream()); oswriteBoolean(true); oswriteUTF( "Hello World!"); oswriteInt(5); osclose();