How DaytimeClient Works in Java

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How DaytimeClient Works
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The daytime application is straightforward, and uses concepts discussed earlier in the chapter A socket is created, an input stream is obtained, and timeouts are enabled in the rare event that a server as simple as daytime fails during a connection Rather than connecting a filtered stream, a buffered reader is connected to the socket input stream, and the results are displayed to the user Finally, the client terminates after closing the socket connection This is about as simple a socket client as you can get complexity comes from implementing network protocols, not from network-specific coding
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Running DaytimeClient
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Running the application is easy Simply specify the hostname of a machine running the daytime service as a command-line parameter and run it If you use a nonstandard port for the daytime server (discussed later), remember to change the port number in the client and recompile For example, to run the client against a server running on the local machine, the following command would be used:
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java DaytimeClient localhost
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NOTE The daytime server must be running, or the client will be unable to establish a connection If you're using, for example, a Wintel system, instead of Unix, then you'll need to run the DaytimeServer from later in this chapter
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66 ServerSocket Class
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A special type of socket, the server socket, is used to provide TCP services Client sockets bind to any free port on the local machine, and connect to a specific server port and host The difference with server sockets is that they bind to a specific port on the local machine, so that remote clients may locate a service Client socket connections will connect to only one machine, whereas server sockets are capable of fulfilling the requests of multiple clients The way it works is simple clients are aware of a service running on a particular port (usually the port number is well known, and used for particular protocols, but servers may run on nonstandard port numbers as well) They establish a connection, and within the server, the connection is accepted Multiple connections can be accepted at the same time, or a server may choose to accept only one connection at any given moment Once accepted, the connection is represented as a normal socket, in the form of a Socket object once you have mastered the
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Socket class, it becomes almost as simple to write servers as it does clients The only difference between a server and a client is that the server binds to a specific port, using a ServerSocket object This ServerSocket object acts as a factory for client connections you don't need to create instances of the Socket class yourself These connections are modeled as a normal socket, so you can connect input and output filter streams (or even a reader and writer) to the connection
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661 Creating a ServerSocket
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Once a server socket is created, it will be bound to a local port and ready to accept incoming connections When clients attempt to connect, they are placed into a queue Once all free space in the queue is exhausted, further clients will be refused Constructors The simplest way to create a server socket is to bind to a local address, which is specified as the only parameter, using a constructor For example, to provide a service on port 80 (usually used for Web servers), the following snippet of code would be used:
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try { // Bind to port 80, to provide a TCP service (like HTTP) ServerSocket myServer = new ServerSocket ( 80 ); // } catch (IOException ioe) { Systemerrprintln ("I/O error " + ioe); }
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This is the simplest form of the ServerSocket constructor, but there are several others that allow additional customization All of these constructors are marked as public
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ServerSocket(int port) throws javaioIOException, javalang SecurityException binds the server socket to the specified port number, so that
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remote clients may locate the TCP service If a value of zero is passed, any free port will be used however, clients will be unable to access the service unless notified somehow of the port number By default, the queue size is set to 50, but an alternate constructor is provided that allows modification of this setting If the port is already bound, or security restrictions (such as security polices or operating system restrictions on well-known ports) prevent access, an exception is thrown ServerSocket(int port, int numberOfClients) throws javaio IOException, javalangSecurityException binds the server socket to the specified port number and allocates sufficient space to the queue to support the specified number of client sockets This is an overloaded version of the ServerSocket(int port) constructor, and if the port is already bound or security restrictions prevent access, an exception is thrown server socket to the specified port number, and allocates sufficient space to the queue to support the specified number of client sockets This is an overloaded version of the ServerSocket(int port, int numberOfClients) constructor that allows a server socket to bind to a specific IP address, in the case of a multihomed machine For example, a machine may have two network cards, or may be configured to represent itself as several machines by using virtual IP addresses Specifying a null value for the address
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ServerSocket(int port, int numberOfClients, InetAddress address) throws javaioIOException, javalangSecurityException binds the
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will cause the server socket to accept requests on all local addresses If the port is already bound or security restrictions prevent access, an exception is thrown
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