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Can be marked Can be generic Can have
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parameters
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Cannot be referenced as a delegate until they are implemented , , or Cannot have access modi ers such as This means that Partial methods are implicitly marked as they cannot be called from outside the partial class and cannot be declared as Can be implemented in the same half of a partial class in which it is de ned, although this is not a common practice Although partial methods are primarily designed as a tool for use with autogenerated code, there may be occasions when you would want to use this technology in your own code, giving consumers of your objects a place where they can hook into events in your class For instance, in Listing 41 method uses a partial method as a means of broadcasting a the noti cation that a text le is being written Although there are other ways to perform this same task, this is a useful technique whether or not code is autogenerated
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Automatically Implemented Properties
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Automatic properties were touched on brie y in 2, Getting Started Here the subject is explored in more depth Automatically implemented properties are a convenience They are valuable because their syntax is concise Consider the simple class shown in Listing 42, which contains two properties declared with the new syntax
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Listing 42 Using the C# 30 Feature Called Automatic Properties
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4: C# 30 Te chnical Over view
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Both and are automatic properties They are a shorthand way of telling the compiler that you want it to automatically generate the most obvious, default implementation for your property Notice that their getters and setters have no explicit implementation When you declare properties in this manner, the C# compiler automatically generates backing elds and fully implemented accessors behind the scenes You never see the getters and setters, and you cannot see or access the backing elds
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snippet to help you quickly declare an automatic and then press Tab twice
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The class just shown is roughly semantically equivalent to the C# 20 code shown in Listing 43 Automatic properties are an alternative to the C# 20 syntax; they do not eclipse or replace it
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Listing 43 C# 20-Style Properties Have Fully Implemented Getters and Setters and an Explicitly Declared Backing Field
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The patterns followed in Listing 43 are repeated often in production C# code This syntax is valuable because it allows developers to add validation code, or side effects, to their getters and setters Nevertheless, they frequently use the default implementation shown a moment ago Automatic properties are simply a shorthand means of writing the default implementation They make your code more concise and, hence, easier to read and maintain To get a deeper understanding of automatic properties, focus for a : moment on just the declaration for
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Re ector shows that the compiler generates the code shown in Listing 44 property behind the scenes when you create the
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Re ector is a free third-party tool you can download from http:// wwwaistocom/roeder/dotnet/ It can sometimes be used to translate IL into standard C# code, thus giving you a peek behind the scenes in a C# program
Listing 44
The Code Generated by Reflector for an Automatic Property
4: C# 30 Te chnical Over view
This code is similar to a C# 20-style property The big difference is the attribute and the funny-looking presence of the This name is not name of the backing eld: a valid C# identi er, but it is a valid CLR identi er Because these are not valid C# names, you are unable to access these elds in your own C# code This was an intentional decision, but it is not inconceivable that the team may provide access to these backing elds in some future version of C#
About the Code Generated by Reflector
The attribute simply marks code so that certain tools can choose to ignore it The use of invalid C# identi ers for variable names is a theme that will recur throughout this chapter I ll show you the Re ector code for them in only this one case, but that tool can be useful when working with the code seen in several sections of this chapter
You must keep in mind a few caveats when working with automatic properties: You must declare both a getter and setter Because you do not have access to the backing eld, read-only and writeonly properties would not be useful, so they are not allowed You can, or modi ers before one of the however, place the two accessors