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other languages that use it extensively One reason LINQ and SQL look so much alike is that they are both forms of declarative programming The point of LINQ is not that it will replace SQL, but that it will bring the bene ts of SQL to C# developers LINQ is a technology for enabling a SQLlike declarative programming style inside a native C# program It brings you the bene ts of SQL but adds declarative syntax, as well as syntax highlighting, IntelliSense support, type checking, debugging support, the ability to query multiple data sources with the same syntax, and much more
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Complex relationships can be expressed in a relational database, but the results of a SQL query can take only one shape: a rectangular grid LINQ has no such restrictions Built into its very foundation is the idea that data is hierarchical (see Figure 32) If you want to, you can write LINQ queries that return at, SQL-like datasets, but this is an option, not a necessity
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Grid versus Hierarchies LINQ s hierarchical data model is more flexible than the grid-like data returned from a SQL query
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Name John Mary Company Boring,inc RidgeCo, AE OrderId 332121 322336
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Figure 32 Both object-oriented languages and the developers who use them have a natural tendency to think in terms of hierarchies SQL data is arranged in a simple grid
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Consider a simple relational database that has tables called Customers, Orders, and OrderDetails It is possible to capture the relationship between these tables in a SQL database, but you cannot directly depict the relationship
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in the results of a single query Instead, you are forced to show the result as a join that binds the tables into a single array of columns and rows LINQ, on the other hand, can return a set of objects, each of which owns a set of 0-to-n Each can be associated with a set of This is a classic hierarchical relationship that can be perfectly expressed with a set of objects: Customer Orders OrderDetails Consider the following simple hierarchical query that captures the relationship between two objects:
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This query asks for the city in which a customer lives and a list of the orders the person has made Rather than returning a rectangular dataset as a SQL query would, this query returns hierarchical data that lists the city associated with each customer and the ID associated with each order:
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This result set is multidimensional, nesting one set of columns and rows inside another set of columns and rows
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Look again at the query, and notice how we gain access to the Orders table:
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The identi er is an instance of a object As you will learn later in the book, LINQ to SQL has tools for automatically generating objects given the presence of the Customer table in the database object is not at; instead, it contains a set Here you can see that the objects of nested object that is autoListing 31 shows a simpli ed version of the matically generated by the LINQ to SQL designer Notice how LINQ to SQL wraps the elds of the Customer table Later in this book, you will learn objects that wrap the elds of a how to automatically generate Customer table
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Listing 31 A Simplified Version of the Generates Automatically Object That the LINQ to SQL Designer
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The rst 11 private elds of the object simply reference the elds of the Customer table in the database Taken together, they provide a location to store the data from a single row of the Customer table Notice, objects Because it is however, the last item, which is a collection of
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bound to the Orders table in a one-to-many relationship, each customer has from 0-to-n orders associated with it, and LINQ to SQL stores those orders in this eld This automatically gives you a hierarchical view of your data The same thing is true of the Order table, only it shows not a one-tomany relationship with the Customer table, but a one-to-one relationship:
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Again we see all the elds of the Orders table, their types, and whether they can be set to Null The difference here is that the last eld points back , but an This to the Customer table not with an and classes is not the proper place to delve into the refers to a set of However, it should be obvious to you that an references a single object Thus, an objects, and an captures a one-to-many relationship, and an captures a one-toone relationship The point to take away from this discussion is that LINQ to SQL capclass tures not a at view of your data, but a hierarchical view A is connected to a set of orders in a clearly de ned hierarchical relationship, and each order is related to the customer who owns it LINQ gives you a hierarchical view of your data In a simple case like this, such a hierarchical relationship has obvious utility, but it is possible to imagine getting along without it More complex
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