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XML and Name space s
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This document uses a default namespace, so all the tags enveloped by the belong to that namespace For instance, the nodes node called , , , and are all considered to be inside the namespace In fact, all the nodes in this document are part of that namespace If you ran the following query against this document, it would fail to retrieve any data, but it would have succeeded had there been no namespace:
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This query fails because there is no in the document called that looks like this: Instead, there is an
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Alternatively, you could designate the same thing with this syntax:
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You can take a node s namespace into account by using a LINQ to XML After incorporating that class, your code would class called look like this:
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15: XML Name space s, Transformations, and Schema
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The points of interest here are the declaration for the namespace, and also : the use of that namespace in the call to
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With these two items in place, the call succeeds Here is another, very different XML document called XmlPresComplexxml:
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This document has two XML elements called One designates the name of a president, and the other the name of a vice president To distinguish between them, the code includes two pre x namespaces one for the president, and one for the vice president Notice that the namespaces are
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XML Transformations
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used only to single out the two elds They are not used to address the other elds in the document When looking at the XML document, notice that we explicitly use the namespace followed by a colon for the nodes we want to call out:
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In this excerpt from the XmlNamespaces sample available for download from the book s web site, you can see how to query the president and vice president document:
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This code returns the name of the president The following code, however, namespace, returns the name of the vice president: which uses the
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Notice how both calls use the class to set up a namespace that can be used as a pre x in the calls to To get one of the elements from the le that is not explicitly designated as belonging to either namespace, just query without the namespace:
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That s all I want to say about querying XML documents that contain namespaces In the next section, on XML transformations, you will see how to create XML documents that contain namespaces
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XML Transformations
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Transformations are an important part of all the avors of LINQ, but they play a particularly large role when you re working with XML Rather than
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15: XML Name space s, Transformations, and Schema
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run through all the possible permutations, I ll focus on three important ways to transform XML data: Transform XML from one format to another Transform relational data into XML Transform XML into relational data The focus will stay primarily on these tasks Additional examples of working with text and XML are found in the sample programs that accompany this book
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Transforming XML from One Format to Another Transforming XML from one format to another is one area where LINQ to XML is particularly strong Complex documents can make the task more challenging, but the basic skills involved are not dif cult to master I should perhaps add that many of the queries you looked at in the preceding chapter are really transformations: They queried one document and transformed it into a second document Let s begin by transforming the FirstFourPlanets XML le from the preceding chapter into the following XML:
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The following code from the TransformPlanets program that accompanies this book performs this task:
This code rst creates a
node for the new document:
XML Transformations
A simple LINQ query then retrieves the data to insert into the other elements of the new document:
The projection in the statement begins with a call to the constructor, which creates an XML node called The content, or eld for this element, is lled in by a call to This code returns the name of the planet If you then write the output from this query to the console or to disk, you will have completed the transformation In this example a few bits of information from the original XML le were added to our new le, and much data was stripped away In the end, however, the data from one document was transformed into data for another document
Creating XHTML Through a Transformation XHTML is a speci cation for writing HTML documents that conform to the XML standard Both types of documents conform to the XML standard, but an XHTML document is a form of HTML and, hence, can be easily displayed in a browser XML parsers, such as LINQ to XML, can be used to query an XHTML document This means that you can, at least in some cases, reliably automate the processing of XHTML documents , , and XHTML documents contain familiar HTML tags such Each tag must be used in conformance with the XML standard For tag must have a matching tag, and every tag instance, every tag We even have to close a break tag using must have a matching Converting an XML document into XHTML is a common task It is also a transformation in that we are transforming an XML document from one format into another XHTML is not a complicated format, but enough subtleties are involved that you need a way to con rm that a document is valid Later in this chapter, I will show you how to use the LINQ APIs to con rm that a document