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Figure 102 Screen shot of applet
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/* Start the display thread */ if (!dispthreadisAlive()) { dispthreadstart(); } return true;
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} return false; } In the init() method of this class, we call the init() method of the superclass and then insert a button into the lower pane that the superclass created We also need to create a handler for the event that will be generated when the button is pressed Although it is the only object which is likely to generate an event to be passed to the action() class, it is still good programming practice to check that the event we are processing is in fact sent from the button In this case if the event is from the button, then we start the threads using the same code that was previously used in the mouseDown method The applet should display Figure 102 1053 Adding the selector The final element that we are going to add is a Choice that will allow the user to select the two models of thread priority that were discussed in Section 104 We just need a simple two-option Choice which we ll use to set the priority of the threads prior to execution The code for this is: import javaawt*; import javalangThread; public class UIHelloWorld3 extends UIHelloWorld { Choice c; public void init() { superinit(); // Set the layout of bottomPanel bottomPanelsetLayout(new BorderLayout()); // Add the start button to p1 bottomPaneladd("North",new Button(" Start! ")); // Add the choice c = new Choice(); // Add the two options to the choice caddItem("Equal Priority"); caddItem("Unequal Priority"); // Add the choice to the frame bottomPaneladd("South",c); } public boolean action(Event evt, Object arg) { String tmpstr; if (" Start! "equals(arg)) { tmpstr = cgetSelectedItem(); if (tmpstrequals("Equal Priority")) { counter[0]setPriority(counter[1]getPriority()); } /* Start the counting threads */ for (int i = 0; i < 2; i++) { if (!counter[i]isAlive()) { counter[i]start(); } } * Start the display thread */ if (!dispthreadisAlive()) { dispthreadstart(); } return true;
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} return false; } } In this class we inherit from the original UIHelloWorld In the init() method we invoke the method from the superclass and then add the buttons as we did in the previous example We then create the Choice and add the two elements that we want the user to pick from The first element that we add to the choice will be the default that is displayed unless an explicit call is made to select another As you might have expected, we have overriden the action() class There are two ways that the user selection can be handled The first involves taking the event generated when the user selects from the Choice and setting the threads appropriately The second way which we have adopted here is simply to check the value of the selected item prior to starting the threads When adding interface elements to applets, make sure that the final interface is usable One of the problems that plagues programming and seems particularly prevalent with applets is poor design Your applet could be used by a huge number of people and it is worth paying serious consideration to the human factors involved in your system If you are writing applets for commercial or large-scale deployments, you should engage in a serious human factors evaluation Increasingly, the worth of your company will be judged by applets and Web pages, and the more usable and suitable your applets are the better the perception of your company will be
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CHAPTER ELEVEN Building an application
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To describe the differences between an application and an applet To describe a simple application To outline the advantages and disadvantages of using applications
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111 Introduction
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The difference between applets and applications should be clear to you by this stage of the book To make it even clearer, applications are standalone, requiring only the presence of the Java run-time interpreter, and are self-contained Applets, by contrast, are dependent on a host, typically a WWW browser, to support execution and to handle the more direct interfaces with the underlying client system This chapter is about applications, which are the most well-known type of code, although paradoxically the first wave of Java code is likely to be almost entirely applets as developers experiment with the possibilities that the applet provides However, applications written in Java should not be ignored
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and will solve some problems where applets are not appropriate Naturally, since Java is the language used in both applets and applications, both share a common set of characteristics which embody some of the strengths of the Java system However, there are some differences which are important and so we ll take the time to tell you when you should be using an applet and when an application would be better suited 1111 Introducing an application We ll introduce applications using the minimal Hello World approach As you will have seen before the Hello World code simply prints the string "Hello World" to the output In the case of a Java application this is the standard output: the command line interface which was used to start the application off Here is the code for the Java version of Hello World: public class HelloWorld { public static void main (String args[]) { Systemoutprintln("Hello World"); } } Applications are required to define a static method called main The Java system guarantees to call this method with the arguments that were supplied as the command line passed as the sole parameter with it being up to the application to process the arguments and act accordingly In our simple application, there are no arguments, and the only line of code in the main() method prints out a String to the output of the system The main method is the basic building block of a Java application, as it is with some other programming languages such as C The main method is the core of an application, and it is from here that your code will allocate resources, load external entities and generally control the flow of the application In Java, the main method is defined as static This means that it is associated with the class rather than with an instance of the class Using the command line arguments Our first example doesn t make use of the fact that the system will pass on the command line arguments that were given to the application when it was called The command line arguments are whatever the user has typed after the name of the application; for example, if the user types: java myApplication fast yellow loud at the system prompt, then the Java run-time interpreter executes the Java class called myApplicationclass (which will contain the class for your application) and the words fast , yellow and loud will be passed on to the main method in the application These arguments are typically used to specify optional behaviour within the application For example, the argument -fast might ask the application to use a faster algorithm to process images in preference to the slower but more accurate algorithm that the application would use by default The use of the minus sign in arguments is not a requirement, but is common on some systems, especially UNIX It doesn t really matter how you process the arguments that the user supplies to your application as long as the arguments make sense to the user and the user is given a clear and reasonable message when incompatible or unsupported arguments are given, ideally with a list of the arguments that are supported Some systems, again notably UNIX, lean towards using single letters However, the use of more friendly arguments, such as: grep -nocase socket myApplicationjava may look more useful and will not require the user to consult the help system before use The downside is that lengthy arguments tend to be tedious to repeat frequently, and an application which may require a large number of arguments becomes a real chore to use
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Our advice is to support a flexible combination of both one-letter and full-word arguments whenever possible For example, the example given for myApplication could support both -fast and -f to indicate that the user wants to use the fast algorithm By carefully choosing your arguments it is possible to create a usable system which is both friendly for novices and quick for experienced users This system fails when you have a large number of arguments; for instance, if we wanted to have arguments to specify a fast algorithm -fast and to make the application write out the final production file -final, how do we implement both arguments as single letters Do we have -final implemented as the next free letter of the alphabet -g The answer is an emphatic no If your application requires more than a few arguments then you should seriously consider implementing an interface to allow the user to select options on-screen The use of huge lists of command line arguments is an unwarranted abuse of your users time and patience and should be avoided at all costs Given that you do require some arguments, how do you process them Let s illustrate this by extending the HelloWorld example from earlier in the chapter The code looks like this: public class HelloWorld2 { public static void main (String args[]) { for (int i = 0; i < argslength; i++) { Systemoutprintln("Arg " + i + ":" + args[i]); } } } If you run and compile this code and then execute it as: java HelloWorld2 Java is cool! you should get the following output: Arg 0:Java Arg 1:is Arg 2:cool! You can see that the new code takes each argument that has been passed to the application and prints it out on a new line, indicating which argument it is The number of arguments passed to the method can be obtained by using the length method Handling real command line arguments What if you want to do something with the arguments Let s take the example given above for specifying that the type of algorithm used is to be faster than the default The code to handle this is as follows: public class HelloWorld3 { public static void main (String args[]) { String algorithm = "slow"; for (int i = 0; i < argslength; i++) { if (args[i]startsWith("-f")) { algorithm = "fast"; } } Systemoutprintln("Algorithm: " + algorithm); } } In this example, each argument is checked to see if it started with f This includes arguments such as fast and f , but also would match the arguments fish and friday Another approach would
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be to explicitly look for the supported arguments f and fast If an argument matches, then the algorithm is changed from the default slow algorithm to our faster option Conflicting options One last thing to watch out for when handling arguments is always to specify a default behaviour Instead of requiring the user to specify one of fast or slow to select an algorithm, define a default behaviour and only require the user to override this when needed If you don t do this, you will have to cope with the possibility of the user calling both arguments, one after the other, which will require a good deal more supporting code and effort on your behalf to ensure that the behaviour that the user expects is what is really happening inside your application
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