Acceptance Testing with Selenium in Java

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With the tools we have already seen, it should be clear that you could test most of your application, if not all (file uploads can get tricky, for example), using a mixture of JUnit (for server-side code, and for nonvisual parts of client-side code) and GWTTestCase (for the visual parts of your code) However, let s give a quick look at an oft-used tool, Selenium, that helps writing and running tests for a complete web application Though we won t be getting in full detail (Selenium is quite vast, with dozens of commands) we ll show how to use it and some caveats you should take into account
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13 Testing Your GWT Application
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Figure 135 GWTTestCase testing usually requires much longer setup
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times, though the tests themselves may be fast
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Three different software pieces compose Selenium, but we ll mostly consider the first one, which lets you create and run tests individually; however, you ll probably sooner or later decide that the other two tools, which have to do with automating large scale tests on different browsers, are also of interest Selenium IDE is a Firefox add-on that provides a simple interface for building and running tests, either on its own or as part of complete test suites You can record your actions and checks, and store them as a script that can be played back If you want, you can even write your tests from scratch (the test language is actually quite simple) but the IDE helps a lot Selenium RC (Remote Control) enables you to use Java and other programming languages for extending your tests Selenium IDE can run only static (ie, predefined) tests; if you want to iterate through a result set or do arithmetic or other tests, you can program them in Java while using Selenium commands to get the data, for example Using a programming language would also allow setting up a complex environment before running the actual tests Also, Selenium RC enables you to run tests on browsers that are not supported by the IDE Thus, you get to use Selenium as a starter kit, and then do the rest of your work in Java, with all its development tools Selenium Grid enables you to run several instances of Selenium RC at the same time, even under different operating systems and with different browsers This is more useful for large series of tests, which can be run in parallel
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You should use Selenium only on the compiled application (see 15, Deploying Your Application ) as the last ( acceptance ) kind of test Reading between lines, this already suggests a first consideration; you shouldn t probably start with
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Acceptance Testing with Selenium
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A Very Simple Example
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Let s remember our City Browsing form If we browsed to Uruguay, and picked Soriano department, the first 20 cities would be as shown in Figure 136
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Figure 136 The cities browsing form will be tested with Selenium
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Given the data we loaded, a possible test would be Open the correct URL Wait for the country data to come in Click on it, and select Uruguay Wait again for the states data Click it, and select Soriano Click the First 20 Cities button
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13 Testing Your GWT Application
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Wait for the table to get populated Check that darwin appeared in the list
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You can use Selenium to record these actions and tests, and if you opt to run the test, you ll get a green result (See Figure 137) You can save this test, and later run it as a part of a general suite
Figure 137 Running our short test produces a green result; everything
checked out okay
Note that you had little to type or specify to create and run this test; you could also have managed with GWTTestCase, but this is easier to set up, and furthermore you can run it in different browsers and under different operating systems There are far more options available for testing, including the possibility of writing your own tests and wait conditions in JavaScript, so you could, for example, test if the list of Uruguayan departments is 19 elements long, or whether the United States shows 50 states Check the Selenium documentation for a complete list of commands24