Language Contrast: C++ Pure Virtual Functions in C#

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Language Contrast: C++ Pure Virtual Functions
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C++ allows for the definition of abstract functions using the cryptic notation =0 These functions are called pure virtual functions in C++ In contrast with C#, however, C++ does not require the class itself to have any special declaration Unlike C# s abstract class modifier, C++ has no class declaration change when the class includes pure virtual functions
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If you provide no GetSummary() implementation in Contact, the compiler will report an error
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By declaring an abstract member, the abstract class programmer states that in order to form an is a relationship between a concrete class and an abstract base class (that is, a PdaItem), it is necessary to implement the abstract members, the members for which the abstract class could not provide an appropriate default implementation
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BEGINNER TOPIC Polymorphism When the implementation for the same member signature varies between two or more classes, you have a key object-oriented principle: polymorphism Poly meaning many and morph meaning form, polymorphism refers to the fact that there are multiple implementations of the same signature And since the same signature cannot be used multiple times within a single class, each implementation of the member signature occurs on a different class The idea behind polymorphism is that the object itself knows best how to perform a particular operation, and by enforcing common ways to invoke those operations, polymorphism is also a technique for encouraging code reuse when taking advantages of the commonalities Given multiple types of documents, each document type class knows best how to perform a Print() method for its corresponding document type Therefore, instead of defining a single print method that includes a switch statement with the special logic to print each document type, with polymorphism you call the Print() method corresponding to the specific type of document you wish to print For example, calling Print() on a word processing document class behaves according to word processing specifics, and calling the same method on a graphics document class will result in print behavior specific to the graphic Given the document types, however, all you have to do to print a document is to call Print(), regardless of the type Moving the custom print implementation out of a switch statement offers several maintenance advantages First, the implementation appears
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6: Inheritance
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in the context of each document type s class rather than in a location far removed; this is in keeping with encapsulation Second, adding a new document type doesn t require a change to the switch statement Instead, all that is necessary is for the new document type class to implement the Print() signature Abstract members are intended to be a way to enable polymorphism The base class specifies the signature of the method and the derived class provides implementation (see Listing 620)
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Listing 620: Using Polymorphism to List the PdaItems
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public class Program { public static void Main() { PdaItem[] pda = new PdaItem[3]; Contact contact = new Contact("Sherlock Holmes"); contactAddress = "221B Baker Street, London, England"; pda[0] = contact; Appointment appointment = new Appointment("Soccer tournament"); appointmentStartDateTime = new DateTime(2008, 7, 18); appointmentEndDateTime = new DateTime(2008, 7, 19); appointmentLocation = "Est dio da Machava"; pda[1] = appointment; contact = new Contact("Anne Frank"); contactAddress = "263 Prinsengracht, Amsterdam, Netherlands"; pda[2] = contact; List(pda); } public static void List(PdaItem[] items) { // Implemented using polymorphism The derived // type knows the specifics of implementing // GetSummary() foreach (PdaItem item in items) { ConsoleWriteLine("_________________");
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All Classes Derive from SystemObject
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ConsoleWriteLine(itemGetSummary()); } } }
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The results of Listing 620 appear in Output 65
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OUTPUT 65:
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________ FirstName: Sherlock LastName: Holmes Address: 221B Baker Street, London, England ________ Subject: Soccer tournament Start: 7/18/2008 12:00:00 AM End: 7/19/2008 12:00:00 AM Location: Esta dio da Machava ________ FirstName: Anne LastName: Frank Address: 263 Prinsengracht, Amsterdam, Netherlands
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In this way, you can call the method on the base class but the implementation is specific to the derived class
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