I am not using max to mean the math function here; I m using it as a variable name in Visual C#

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7 I am not using max to mean the math function here; I m using it as a variable name
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Working with Variables
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Listing 111: Changing the Value of a Variable
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class MiracleMax { static void Main() { string valerie; string max = "Have fun storming the castle!"; valerie = "Think it will work "; SystemConsoleWriteLine(max); SystemConsoleWriteLine(valerie); max = "It would take a miracle"; SystemConsoleWriteLine(max); } }
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From this listing, observe that it is possible to assign a variable as part of the variable declaration (as it was for max), or afterward in a separate statement (as with the variable valerie) The value assigned must always be on the right side Running the compiled MiracleMaxexe program produces the code shown in Output 13
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OUTPUT 13:
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>MiracleMaxexe Have fun storming the castle! Think it will work It would take a miracle
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C# requires that developers assign a local variable before accessing it Additionally, an assignment returns a value Therefore, C# allows two assignments within the same statement, as demonstrated in Listing 112
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Listing 112: Assignment Returning a Value That Can Be Assigned Again
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class MiracleMax { static void Main() { // string requirements, max; requirements = max = "It would take a miracle";
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1: Introducing C#
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// } }
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Using a Variable The result of the assignment, of course, is that you can then refer to the value using the variable identifier Therefore, when you use the variable max within the SystemConsoleWriteLine(max) statement, the program displays Have fun storming the castle!, the value of max, on the console Changing the value of max and executing the same SystemConsole WriteLine(max) statement causes the new max value, It would take a miracle, to be displayed
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ADVANCED TOPIC Strings Are Immutable All data of type string, whether string literals or otherwise, is immutable (or unmodifiable) For example, it is not possible to change the string "Come As You Are" to "Come As You Age" A change such as this requires that you reassign the variable to point to a new location in memory, instead of modifying the data to which the variable originally referred
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Console Input and Output
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This chapter already used SystemConsoleWriteLine repeatedly for writing out text to the command console In addition to being able to write out data, a program needs to be able to accept data that a user may enter
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Getting Input from the Console One of the ways to retrieve text that is entered at the console is to use SystemConsoleReadLine() This method stops the program execution so that the user can enter characters When the user presses the Enter key, creating a newline, the program continues The output, also known as the return, from the SystemConsoleReadLine() method is the string of text that was entered Consider Listing 113 and the corresponding output shown in Output 14
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Listing 113: Using SystemConsoleReadLine()
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class HeyYou { static void Main() { string firstName; string lastName; SystemConsoleWriteLine("Hey you!"); SystemConsoleWrite("Enter your first name: "); firstName = SystemConsoleReadLine(); SystemConsoleWrite("Enter your last name: "); lastName = SystemConsoleReadLine(); } }
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OUTPUT 14:
>HeyYouexe Hey you! Enter your first name: Inigo Enter your last name: Montoya
After each prompt, this program uses the SystemConsoleReadLine() method to retrieve the text the user entered and assign it to an appropriate variable By the time the second SystemConsoleReadLine() assignment completes, firstName contains to the value Inigo and lastName refers to the value Montoya
ADVANCED TOPIC
SystemConsoleRead() In addition to the SystemConsoleReadLine() method, there is also a SystemConsoleRead() method However, the data type returned by the SystemConsoleRead() method is an integer corresponding to the charac-
ter value read, or 1 if no more characters are available To retrieve the actual character, it is necessary to first cast the integer to a character, as shown in Listing 114
1: Introducing C#
Listing 114: Using SystemConsoleRead()
int readValue; char character; readValue = SystemConsoleRead(); character = (char) readValue; SystemConsoleWrite(character);
The SystemConsoleRead() method does not return the input until the user presses the Enter key; no processing of characters will begin, even if the user types multiple characters before pressing the Enter key In C# 20, the CLR designers added a new method called System ConsoleReadKey() which, in contrast to SystemConsoleRead(), returns the input after a single keystroke It allows the developer to intercept the keystroke and perform actions such as key validation, restricting the characters to numerics
Writing Output to the Console In Listing 113, you prompt the user for his first and last names using the method SystemConsoleWrite() rather than SystemConsoleWriteLine() Instead of placing a newline character after displaying the text, the SystemConsoleWrite() method leaves the current position on the same line In this way, any text the user enters will be on the same line as the prompt for input The output from Listing 113 demonstrates the effect of SystemConsoleWrite() The next step is to write the values retrieved using SystemConsole ReadLine() back to the console In the case of Listing 115, the program writes out the user s full name However, instead of using SystemConsoleWriteLine() as before, this code will use a slight variation Output 15 shows the corresponding output
Listing 115: Formatting Using SystemConsoleWriteLine()
class HeyYou { static void Main() { string firstName; string lastName;