17: No Indentation Formatting in C#.NET

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Listing 17: No Indentation Formatting
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class HelloWorld { static void Main() { SystemConsoleWriteLine("Hello Inigo Montoya"); } }
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Listing 18: Removing Whitespace
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class HelloWorld{static void Main() {SystemConsoleWriteLine("Hello Inigo Montoya");}}
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Although these two examples look significantly different from the original program, the C# compiler sees them as identical
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BEGINNER TOPIC Formatting Code with Whitespace Indenting the code using whitespace is important for greater readability As you begin writing code, you need to follow established coding standards and conventions in order to enhance code readability The convention used in this book is to place curly braces on their own line and to indent the code contained between the curly brace pair If another curly brace pair appears within the first pair, all the code within the second set of braces is also indented This is not a uniform C# standard, but a stylistic preference
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Working with Variables
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Now that you ve been introduced to the most basic C# program, it s time to declare a local variable Once a variable is declared, you can assign it a value, replace that value with a new value, and use it in calculations,
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Working with Variables
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output, and so on However, you cannot change the data type of the variable In Listing 19, string max is a variable declaration
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Listing 19: Declaring and Assigning a Variable
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class MiracleMax { static void Main() {
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data type
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string max;
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variable
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max = "Have fun storming the castle!"; SystemConsoleWriteLine(max); } }
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BEGINNER TOPIC Local Variables A variable refers to a storage location by a name that the program can later assign and modify Local indicates that the programmer declared the variable within a method To declare a variable is to define it, which you do by
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1 Specifying the type of data which the variable will contain 2 Assigning it an identifier (name)
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Data Types Listing 19 declares a variable with the data type string Other common data types used in this chapter are int and char
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int is the C# designation of an integer type that is 32 bits in size char is used for a character type It is 16 bits, large enough for
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(nonsurrogate) Unicode characters The next chapter looks at these and other common data types in more detail
1: Introducing C#
BEGINNER TOPIC What Is a Data Type The type of data that a variable declaration specifies is called a data type (or object type) A data type, or simply type, is a classification of things that share similar characteristics and behavior For example, animal is a type It classifies all things (monkeys, warthogs, and platypuses) that have animal characteristics (multicellular, capacity for locomotion, and so on) Similarly, in programming languages, a type is a definition for several items endowed with similar qualities Declaring a Variable In Listing 19, string max is a variable declaration of a string type whose name is max It is possible to declare multiple variables within the same statement by specifying the data type once and separating each identifier with a comma Listing 110 demonstrates this
Listing 110: Declaring Two Variables within One Statement
string message1, message2;
Because a multivariable declaration statement allows developers to provide the data type only once within a declaration, all variables will be of the same type In C#, the name of the variable may begin with any letter or an underscore (_), followed by any number of letters, numbers, and/or underscores By convention, however, local variable names are camel-cased (the first letter in each word is capitalized, except for the first word) and do not include underscores
Assigning a Variable After declaring a local variable, you must assign it a value before referencing it One way to do this is to use the = operator, also known as the simple assignment operator Operators are symbols used to identify the function the code is to perform Listing 111 demonstrates how to use the assignment operator to designate the string values to which the variables max7 and valerie will point