The parameter array is not necessarily the only parameter on a in Visual C#

Drawer QR in Visual C# The parameter array is not necessarily the only parameter on a
The parameter array is not necessarily the only parameter on a
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method However, the parameter array must be the last parameter in the method declaration Since only the last parameter may be a parameter array, a method cannot have more than one parameter array
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The caller can specify zero parameters for the parameter array, which
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will result in an array of zero items
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4: Methods and Parameters Parameter arrays are type-safe the type must match the type
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identified by the array
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The caller can use an explicit array rather than a comma-separated list
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of parameters The resultant CIL code is identical
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If the target method implementation requires a minimum number of
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parameters, then those parameters should appear explicitly within the method declaration, forcing a compile error instead of relying on runtime error handling if required parameters are missing For example, use int Max(int first, params int[] operands) rather than int Max(params int[] operands) so that at least one value is passed to Max() Using a parameter array, you can pass a variable number of parameters of the same type into a method The section Method Overloading, later in this chapter, discusses a means of supporting a variable number of parameters that are not necessarily of the same type
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Recursion
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Calling a method recursively or implementing the method using recursion refers to the fact that the method calls itself This is sometimes the simplest way to implement a method Listing 415 counts the lines of all the C# source files (*cs) in a directory and its subdirectory
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Listing 415: Returning All the Filenames, Given a Directory
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using SystemIO; public static class LineCounter { // Use the first argument as the directory // to search, or default to the current directory public static void Main(string[] args) { int totalLineCount = 0; string directory; if (argsLength > 0) { directory = args[0]; } else
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Recursion
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{ directory = DirectoryGetCurrentDirectory(); } totalLineCount = DirectoryCountLines(directory); SystemConsoleWriteLine(totalLineCount); } static int DirectoryCountLines(string directory) { int lineCount = 0; foreach (string file in DirectoryGetFiles(directory, "*cs")) { lineCount += CountLines(file); } foreach (string subdirectory in DirectoryGetDirectories(directory)) { lineCount += DirectoryCountLines(subdirectory); } return lineCount; } private static int CountLines(string file) { string line; int lineCount = 0; FileStream stream = new FileStream(file, FileModeOpen);3 StreamReader reader = new StreamReader(stream); line = readerReadLine(); while(line != null) { if (lineTrim() != "") { lineCount++; } line = readerReadLine(); } readerClose(); // Automatically closes the stream return lineCount; } }
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3 I could improve this code with a using statement, but I have avoided that construct because I have not yet introduced it
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4: Methods and Parameters
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Output 49 shows the results of Listing 415
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OUTPUT 49:
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The program begins by passing the first command-line argument to DirectoryCountLines(), or by using the current directory if no argument was provided This method first iterates through all the files in the current directory and totals the source code lines for each file After each file in the directory, the code processes each subdirectory by passing the subdirectory back into the DirectoryCountLines() method, rerunning the method using the subdirectory The same process is repeated recursively through each subdirectory until no more directories remain to process Readers unfamiliar with recursion may find it cumbersome at first Regardless, it is often the simplest pattern to code, especially with hierarchical type data such as the filesystem However, although it may be the most readable, it is generally not the fastest implementation If performance becomes an issue, developers should seek an alternative solution in place of a recursive implementation The choice generally hinges on balancing readability with performance
BEGINNER TOPIC Infinite Recursion Error A common programming error in recursive method implementations appears in the form of a stack overflow during program execution This usually happens because of infinite recursion, in which the method continually calls back on itself, never reaching a point that indicates the end of the recursion It is a good practice for programmers to review any method that uses recursion and verify that the recursion calls are finite A common pattern for recursion using pseudocode is as follows:
M(x) { if x is trivial
Method Overloading
Return the result else a Do some work to make the problem smaller b Recursively call M to solve the smaller problem c Compute the result based on a and b return the result }
Things go wrong when this pattern is not followed For example, if you don t make the problem smaller or if you don t handle all possible smallest cases, the recursion never terminates