338: Using Bitwise Operators in Visual C#.NET

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Listing 338: Using Bitwise Operators
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byte and, or, xor; and = 12 & 7; // and = 4 or = 12 | 7; // or = 15 xor = 12 ^ 7; // xor = 11 SystemConsoleWriteLine( "and = {0} \nor = {1}\nxor = {2}" and, or, xor);
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OUTPUT 318:
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and = 4 or = 15 xor = 11
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In Listing 338, the value 7 is the mask; it is used to expose or eliminate specific bits within the first operand using the particular operator expression In order to convert a number to its binary representation, you need to iterate across each bit in a number Listing 339 is an example of a program
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Bitwise Operators ( <<, >>, |, &, ^, ~)
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that converts an integer to a string of its binary representation The results of Listing 339 appear in Output 319
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Listing 339: Getting a String Representation of a Binary Display
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public class BinaryConverter { public static void Main() { const int size = 64; ulong value; char bit; SystemConsoleWrite ("Enter an integer: "); // Use longParse() so as to support negative numbers // Assumes unchecked assignment to ulong value = (ulong)longParse(SystemConsoleReadLine()); // Set initial mask to 100 ulong mask = 1ul << size - 1; for (int count = 0; count < size; count++) { bit = ((mask & value) > 0) '1': '0'; SystemConsoleWrite(bit); // Shift mask one location over to the right mask >>= 1; } SystemConsoleWriteLine(); } }
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OUTPUT 319:
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Enter an integer: 42 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000101010
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Notice that within each iteration of the for loop (discussed shortly), you use the right-shift assignment operator to create a mask corresponding to each bit in value By using the & bit operator to mask a particular bit, you can determine whether the bit is set If the mask returns a positive result, you set the corresponding bit to 1; otherwise, it is set to 0 In this way, you create a string representing the binary value of an unsigned long
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3: Operators and Control Flow
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Bitwise Assignment Operators (&=, |=, ^=) Not surprisingly, you can combine these bitwise operators with assignment operators as follows: &=, |=, and ^= As a result, you could take a variable, OR it with a number, and assign the result back to the original variable, which Listing 340 demonstrates
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Listing 340: Using Logical Assignment Operators
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byte and, or, xor; and = 12; and &= 7; // and = 4 or = 12; or |= 7; // or = 15 xor = 12; xor ^= 7; // xor = 11 SystemConsoleWriteLine( "and = {0} \nor = {1} \nxor = {2}", and, or, xor);
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The results of Listing 340 appear in Output 320
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OUTPUT 320:
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and = 4 or = 15 xor = 11
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Combining a bitmap with a mask using something like fields &= mask clears the bits in fields that are not set in the mask The opposite, fields &= ~mask, clears out the bits in fields that are set in mask
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Bitwise Complement Operator (~) The bitwise complement operator takes the complement of each bit in the operand, where the operand can be an int, uint, long, or ulong ~1, therefore, returns 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1110 and ~(1<<31) returns 0111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111
Control Flow Statements, Continued
Control Flow Statements, Continued
With the additional coverage of Boolean expressions, it s time to consider more of the control flow statements supported by C# As indicated in the introduction to this chapter, many of these statements will be familiar to experienced programmers, so you can skim this section for information specific to C# Note in particular the foreach loop, as this may be new to many programmers
The while and do/while Loops Until now, you have learned how to write programs that do something only once However, one of the important capabilities of the computer is that it can perform the same operation multiple times In order to do this, you need to create an instruction loop The first instruction loop I will discuss is the while loop The general form of the while statement is as follows: