Output 313 shows the results of Listing 321 in C#

Creation Quick Response Code in C# Output 313 shows the results of Listing 321
Output 313 shows the results of Listing 321
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OUTPUT 313:
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What s the maximum number of turns in tic-tac-toe (Enter 0 to exit): 9 Correct, tic-tac-toe has a max of 9 turns
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Assume the user enters 9 when prompted at line 14 Here is the execution path: 1 Line 16: Check if input is less than 0 Since it is not, jump to line 20 2 Line 20: Check if input is less than 9 Since it is not, jump to line 26 3 Line 26: Check if input is greater than 9 Since it is not, jump to line 33 4 Line 33: Display that the answer was correct Listing 321 contains nested if statements To clarify the nesting, the lines are indented However, as you learned in 1, whitespace does not affect the execution path Without indenting and without newlines, the execution would be the same The code that appears in the nested if statement in Listing 322 is equivalent to Listing 321
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Listing 322: if/else Formatted Sequentially
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if (input < 0) SystemConsoleWriteLine("Exiting"); else if (input < 9) SystemConsoleWriteLine(
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Code Blocks ( {})
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"Tic-tac-toe has more than {0}" + " maximum turns", input); else if(input>9) SystemConsoleWriteLine( "Tic-tac-toe has less than {0}" + " maximum turns", input); else SystemConsoleWriteLine( "Correct, tic-tac-toe has a maximum of 9 turns");
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Although the latter format is more common, in each situation use the format that results in the clearest code
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In the previous if statement examples, only one statement follows if and else: a single SystemConsoleWriteLine(), similar to Listing 323
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Listing 323: if Statement with No Code Block
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if(input<9) SystemConsoleWriteLine("Exiting");
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With curly braces, however, we can combine statements into a single unit called a code block, allowing the execution of multiple statements for a condition Take, for example, the highlighted code block in the radius calculation in Listing 324
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Listing 324: if Statement Followed by a Code Block
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class CircleAreaCalculator { static void Main() { double radius; // Declare a variable to store the radius double area; // Declare a variable to store the area SystemConsoleWrite("Enter the radius of the circle: "); // doubleParse converts the ReadLine() // return to a double radius = doubleParse(SystemConsoleReadLine()); if(radius>=0)
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{ // Calculate the area of the circle area = 314*radius*radius; SystemConsoleWriteLine( "The area of the circle is: {0}", area); } else { SystemConsoleWriteLine( "{0} is not a valid radius", radius); } } }
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Output 314 shows the results of Listing 324
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OUTPUT 314:
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Enter the radius of the circle: 3 The area of the circle is: 2826
In this example, the if statement checks whether the radius is positive If so, the area of the circle is calculated and displayed; otherwise, an invalid radius message is displayed Notice that in this example, two statements follow the first if However, these two statements appear within curly braces The curly braces combine the statements into a code block If you omit the curly braces that create a code block in Listing 324, only the statement immediately following the Boolean expression executes conditionally Subsequent statements will execute regardless of the if statement s Boolean expression The invalid code is shown in Listing 325
Listing 325: Relying on Indentation, Resulting in Invalid Code
if(radius>=0) area = 314*radius*radius; SystemConsoleWriteLine( // Logic Error!! Needs code block "The area of the circle is: {0}", area);
In C#, indentation is for code readability only The compiler ignores it, and therefore, the previous code is semantically equivalent to Listing 326
Scope and Declaration Space
Listing 326: Semantically Equivalent to Listing 325
if(radius>=0) { area = 314*radius*radius; } SystemConsoleWriteLine( // Error!! Place within code block "The area of the circle is: {0}", area);
Programmers should take great care to avoid subtle bugs such as this, perhaps even going so far as to always include a code block after a control flow statement, even if there is only one statement Although unusual, it is possible to have a code block that is not lexically a direct part of a control flow statement In other words, placing curly braces on their own (without a conditional or loop, for example) is legal syntax
ADVANCED TOPIC Math Constants In Listing 325 and Listing 326, the value of pi as 314 was hardcoded a crude approximation at best There are much more accurate definitions for pi and E in the SystemMath class Instead of hardcoding a value, code should use SystemMathPI and SystemMathE