NOTE in Visual C#

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NOTE
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Note the similarity between these two acronyms and the names they stand for Take care to understand these upfront to avoid confusion later on
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CLI Implementations
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Contained within the CLI standard are specifications for the following:
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The Virtual Execution System (VES, or runtime) The Common Intermediate Language (CIL) The Common Type System (CTS) The Common Language Specification (CLS) Metadata The framework
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This chapter broadens your view of C# to include the CLI, which is critical to how C# programs operate and interact with programs and with the operating system
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CLI Implementations
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There are currently seven predominant implementations of the CLI (four of which are from Microsoft), each with an accompanying implementation of a C# compiler Table 211 describes these implementations
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TABLE 211: Primary C# Compilers
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Compiler
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Description
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Microsoft Visual C# NET Compiler
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Microsoft s NET C# compiler is dominant in the industry, but it is limited to running on the Windows family of operating systems You can download it free as part of the Microsoft NET Framework SDK from http://msdnmicrosoftcom/en-us/netframework/ defaultaspx This is a cross-platform implementation of the CLI that runs on both the Windows family of operating systems and the Macintosh Resources for getting started with development on this platform are available at http://silverlightnet/ getstarted This is a trimmed-down implementation of the NET Framework designed to run on PDAs and phones
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Continues
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Microsoft Silverlight
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Microsoft Compact Framework
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21: The Common Language Infrastructure
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TABLE 211: Primary C# Compilers (Continued)
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Compiler
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Description
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Microsoft XNA
This is a CLI implementation for game developers targeting Xbox and Windows Vista For more information, see wwwxnacom The Mono Project is an open source implementation sponsored by Ximian and designed to provide a Windows-, Linux-, and Unix-compatible version of the CLI specification and C# compiler Source code and binaries are available at wwwgo-monocom This is focused on creating platform-portable applications that will run under both the NET and the DotGNU PortableNET implementations of the CLI This implementation is available from wwwdotgnuorg Supported operating systems include GNU/Linux *BSD, Cygwin/ Mingw32, Mac OS X, Solaris, AIX, and PARISC DotGNU and Mono have used portions of each other s libraries at various times The Rotor program, also known as the Shared Source CLI, is an implementation of the CLI that Microsoft developed to run on Windows, Mac OS X, and FreeBSD Both the implementation and the source code are available free at http://msdnmicrosoftcom/en-us/library/ms973880aspx Note that although the source code is available for download, Microsoft has not licensed Rotor for developing commercial applications, and instead has targeted it as a learning tool
Mono Project
DotGNU
Rotor
Although none of these platforms and compilers would have any problems with the source code shown in 1, note that each CLI and C# compiler implementation is at a different stage of compliance with the specifications For example, some implementations will not compile all the newer syntax All implementations, however, are intended to comply with the ECMA-334 specification for C# 101 and the ECMA-335 specification for the CLI 122 Furthermore, many implementations include prototype features prior to the establishment of those features in standards
1 This is available for free via mail, or via download at wwwecma-internationalorg/ publications/standards/Ecma-334htm 2 This is available for free via mail, or via download at wwwecma-internationalorg/ publications/standards/Ecma-335htm
C# Compilation to Machine Code
C# Compilation to Machine Code
The HelloWorld program listing in 1 is obviously C# code, and you compiled it for execution using the C# compiler However, the processor still cannot directly interpret compiled C# code An additional compilation step is required to convert the result of C# compilation into machine code Furthermore, the execution requires the involvement of an agent that adds additional services to the C# program, services that it was not necessary to code for explicitly All computer languages define syntax and semantics for programming Since languages such as C and C++ compile to machine code, the platform for these languages is the underlying operating system and machine instruction set, be it Microsoft Windows, Linux, Unix, or others Languages such as C# are different; the underlying platform is the runtime (or VES) CIL is what the C# compiler produces after compiling It is termed a common intermediate language (CIL) because an additional step is required to transform the CIL into something that processors can understand Figure 211 shows the process In other words, C# compilation requires two steps: 1 Conversion from C# to CIL by the C# compiler 2 Conversion from CIL to instructions that the processor can execute The runtime is able to understand CIL statements and compile them to machine code Generally, a component within the runtime performs this compilation from CIL to machine code This component is the just-in-time (JIT) compiler, and jitting can occur when the program is installed or executed Most CLI implementations favor execution-time compilation of the CIL, but the CLI does not specify when the compilation needs to occur In fact, the CLI even allows the CIL to be interpreted rather than compiled, similar to the way many scripting languages work In addition, NET includes a tool called NGEN that enables compilation to machine code prior to actually running the program This preexecution-time compilation needs to take place on the computer on which the program will be executing because it will evaluate the machine characteristics (processor, memory, and so on) in order to generate more efficient code The advantage of using