Synchronization in Visual C#

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4 Circular wait condition: Two or more threads form a circular chain such that they lock on the same two or more resources and each waits on the resource held by the next thread in the chain Removing any one of these conditions will prevent the deadlock A scenario likely to cause a deadlock is when two or more threads request exclusive ownership on the same two or more synchronization targets (resources) and the locks are requested in different orders This is avoided when developers are careful to ensure that multiple lock acquisitions are always in the same order Another cause of a deadlock is locks that are not reentrant When a lock from one thread can block the same thread that is, it is re-requesting the same lock the lock is not reentrant For example, if ThreadA acquires a lock and then re-requests the same lock but is blocked because the lock is already owned, the lock is not reentrant and the additional request will deadlock Therefore, locks that are not reentrant can occur only with a single thread The code generated by the lock keyword (with the underlying Monitor class) is reentrant However, as we shall see in the More Synchronization Types section, there are lock types that are not re-entrant
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When to Provide Synchronization
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As already discussed, all static data should be thread-safe Therefore, synchronization needs to surround static data that is mutable Generally, this means that programmers should declare private static variables and then provide public methods for modifying the data Such methods should internally handle the synchronization In contrast, instance state is not expected to include synchronization Synchronization may significantly decrease performance and increase the chance of a lock contention or deadlock With the exception of classes that are explicitly designed for multithreaded access, programmers sharing objects across multiple threads are expected to handle their own synchronization of the data being shared
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Avoiding Unnecessary Locking
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Without compromising data integrity, programmers should avoid unnecessary synchronization where possible For example, use immutable types
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19: Synchronization and More Multithreading Patterns
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between threads so that no synchronization is necessary (this approach has proven invaluable in functional programming languages such as F#) Similarly, avoid locking on operations on thread-safe operations such as simple reads and writes of an int
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More Synchronization Types In addition to SystemThreadingMonitor and SystemThreadingInterlocked, several more synchronization techniques are available
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SystemThreadingMutex SystemThreadingMutex is similar in concept to the SystemThreadingMonitor class (without the Pulse() method support), except that the lock keyword does not use it and Mutexes can be named so that they sup-
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port synchronization across multiple processes Using the Mutex class, you can synchronize access to a file or some other cross-process resource Since Mutex is a cross-process resource, NET 20 added support to allow for setting the access control via a SystemSecurityAccessControlMutexSecurity object One use for the Mutex class is to limit an application so that it cannot run multiple times simultaneously, as Listing 198 demonstrates
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Listing 198: Creating a Single Instance Application
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using System; using SystemThreading; using SystemReflection; class Program { public static void Main() { // Indicates whether this is the first // application instance bool firstApplicationInstance; // Obtain the mutex name from the full // assembly name string mutexName = AssemblyGetEntryAssembly()FullName; using( Mutex mutex = new Mutex(false, mutexName, out firstApplicationInstance) ) {
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if(!firstApplicationInstance) { ConsoleWriteLine( "This application is already running"); } else { ConsoleWriteLine("ENTER to shutdown"); ConsoleReadLine(); } } } }
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The results from running the first instance of the application appear in Output 194
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OUTPUT 194:
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ENTER to shutdown
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The results of the second instance of the application while the first instance is still running appear in Output 195
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OUTPUT 195:
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This application is already running
In this case, the application can run only once on the machine, even if it is launched by different users To restrict the instances to one per user, prefix AssemblyGetEntryAssembly()FullName with SystemWindowsForms ApplicationUserAppDataPathReplace( "\\", "+" ) instead This requires a reference to the SystemWindowsForms assembly Mutex derives from SystemThreadingWaitHandle and, therefore, includes WaitAll(), WaitAny(), and SignalAndWait() methods, allowing it to acquire multiple locks automatically (something Monitor does not support)