168: Using SortedDictionary<TKey, TValue> in Visual C#.NET

Generation Quick Response Code in Visual C#.NET 168: Using SortedDictionary<TKey, TValue>
Listing 168: Using SortedDictionary<TKey, TValue>
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using System; using SystemCollectionsGeneric; class Program { static void Main() { SortedDictionary<string,string> sortedDictionary = new SortedDictionary<string,string>(); int index =0; sortedDictionaryAdd(index++ToString(), "object"); // sortedDictionaryAdd(index++ToString(), "string"); ConsoleWriteLine("Key Value Hashcode"); ConsoleWriteLine--- ------- ----------"); foreach ( KeyValuePair<string, string> i in sortedDictionary) { ConsoleWriteLine("{0,-5}{1,-9}{2}", iKey, iValue, iKeyGetHashCode()); } } }
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The results of Listing 168 appear in Output 164
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Primary Collection Classes
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OUTPUT 164:
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Key --0 1 10 11 12 13 14 15 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Value ------object byte sbyte short long void double string uint ulong float char bool ushort decimal int Hashcode ----------842352752 -842352753 -843401329 -843466865 -843532401 -843597937 -843663473 -843729009 -842352754 -842352755 -842352756 -842352757 -842352758 -842352759 -842352744 -842352745
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Figure 164: SortedList<> and SortedDictionary<> Class Diagrams
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16: Building Custom Collections
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Note that the elements in the key (not the value) are in alphabetical rather than numerical order, because the data type of the key is a string, not an integer When inserting or removing elements from a sorted dictionary collection, maintenance of order within the collection slightly increases execution time when compared to the straight dictionary classes described earlier Behaviorally, there are two internal arrays, one for key retrieval and one for index retrieval On a SystemCollectionsSorted sorted list, indexing is supported via the GetByIndex() and SetByIndex() methods With SystemCollectionsGenericSortedList<TKey, TValue>, the Keys and Values properties return IList<TKey> and IList<TValue> instances, respectively These methods enable the sorted list to behave both as a dictionary and as a list type collection
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Stack Collections: Stack<T> 11 discussed the stack collection classes (see Figure 165) The stack collection classes are designed as last in, first out (LIFO) collections The two key methods are Push() and Pop()
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Push() places elements into the collection The elements do not have
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to be unique
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Pop() retrieves and removes elements in the reverse order of how
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they were added To access the elements on the stack without modifying the stack, you use the Peek() and Contains() methods The Peek() method returns the next element that Pop() will retrieve As with most collection classes, you use the Contains() method to determine whether an element exists anywhere in the stack As with all collections, it is also possible to use a foreach loop to iterate over the elements in a stack This allows you to access values from anywhere in the stack Note, however, that accessing a value via the foreach loop does not remove it from the stack Only Pop() provides this functionality
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Queue Collections: Queue<T> Queue collection classes, shown in Figure 166, are identical to stack collection classes, except they follow the ordering pattern of first in, first out (FIFO) In place of the Pop() and Push() methods are the Enqueue() and Dequeue() methods The queue collection behaves like a circular array or pipe You place objects into the queue at one end using the Enqueue() method, and you remove them from the other end using the Dequeue() method As with stack collection classes, the objects do not have to be unique, and queue collection classes automatically increase in size as required When data is no longer needed, you recover the capacity using the TrimToSize() method Linked Lists: LinkedList<T> In addition, SystemCollectionsGeneric supports a linked list collection that enables both forward and reverse traversal Figure 167 shows the class diagram Notice there is no corresponding nongeneric type
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Figure 165: Stack<T> Class Diagram
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Figure 166: Queue<T> Class Diagram
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16: Building Custom Collections
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Figure 167: LinkedList<T> and LinkedListNode<T> Class Diagrams
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Providing an Index Operator
The common collection interfaces provide much of the foundation for what members are needed when implementing custom collections However, there is one more member: the index operator The index operator is a pair of square brackets that are generally used to index into a collection Not only is this available on each collection type, but it is also a member that programmers can add to their custom classes Listing 169 shows an example using Pair<T>
Listing 169: Defining an Index Operator
interface IPair<T> { T First { get; }
Providing an Index Operator
T Second { get; } T this[PairItem index] { get; } }
public enum PairItem { First, Second }
public struct Pair<T> : IPair<T> { public Pair(T first, T second) { _first = first; _second = second; } public T First { get{ return _first; } private set{ _first = value; } } private T _first; public T Second { get{ return _second; } private set{ _second = value; } } private T _second; public T this[PairItem index] { get { switch (index) { case PairItemFirst: return First; case PairItemSecond: return Second; default : throw new NotImplementedException( stringFormat(