In alphabetical order Bashful is the first dwarf while Sneezy is the last in C#

Drawing Quick Response Code in C# In alphabetical order Bashful is the first dwarf while Sneezy is the last
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C# is zero-index-based; therefore, index zero in Listing 162 corresponds to the first element and index 6 indicates the seventh element Retrieving elements by index does not involve a search It involves a quick and simple jump operation to a location in memory When you use the Add() method, elements maintain the order in which you added them Therefore, prior to the call to Sort() in Listing 162, "Sneezy" is first and "Grumpy" is last Although List<T> supports a Sort() method, nothing states that all list collections require such a method There is no support for automatic sorting of elements as they are added In other words, an explicit call to Sort() is required for the elements to be sorted (items must implement IComparable) To remove an element, you use the Remove() method To search List<T> for a particular element, you use the Contains(), IndexOf(), LastIndexOf(), and BinarySearch() methods The first three methods search through the array, starting at the first element (the last element for LastIndexOf()), and examine each element until the equivalent one is found The execution time for these algorithms is proportional to the
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number of elements searched before a hit occurs Be aware that the collection classes do not require that all the elements within the collection are unique If two or more elements in the collection are the same, then IndexOf() returns the first index and LastIndexOf() returns the last index BinarySearch() uses a binary search algorithm and requires that the elements be sorted A useful feature of the BinarySearch() method is that if the element is not found, a negative integer is returned The bitwise complement (~) of this value is the index of the next element larger than the element being sought, or the total element count if there is no greater value This provides a convenient means to insert new values into the list at the specific location so as to maintain sorting (see Listing 163)
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Listing 163: Using the Bit Complement of the BinarySearch() Result
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using System; using SystemCollectionsGeneric; class Program { static void Main() { List<string> list = new List<string>(); int search; listAdd("public"); listAdd("protected"); listAdd("private"); listSort(); search = listBinarySearch("protected internal"); if (search < 0) { listInsert(~search, "protected internal"); } foreach (string accessModifier in list) { ConsoleWriteLine(accessModifier); } } }
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Beware that if the list is not first sorted, an element will not necessarily be found, even if it is in the list The results of Listing 163 appear in Output 162
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OUTPUT 162:
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private protected protected internal public
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ADVANCED TOPIC Finding Multiple Items with FindAll() Sometimes you must find multiple items within a list and your search criteria are more complex than looking for specific values To support this, SystemCollectionsGenericList<T> includes a FindAll() method FindAll() takes a parameter of type Predicate<T>, which is a reference to a method called a delegate Listing 164 demonstrates how to use the FindAll() method
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Listing 164: Demonstrating FindAll() and Its Predicate Parameter
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using System; using SystemCollectionsGeneric; class Program { static void Main() { List<int> list = new List<int>(); listAdd(1); listAdd(2); listAdd(3); listAdd(2); List<int> results = listFindAll(Even); foreach(int number in results) { ConsoleWriteLine(number); } } public static bool Even(int value) { return (value % 2) == 0; } }
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In Listing 164 s call to FindAll(), you pass a delegate instance, Even() This method returns true when the integer argument value is even
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16: Building Custom Collections FindAll() takes the delegate instance and calls into Even() for each item
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within the list (this listing uses C# 20 s delegate type inferencing) Each time the return is true, it adds it to a new List<T> instance and then returns this instance once it has checked each item within list A complete discussion of delegates occurs in 12
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Dictionary Collections: Dictionary<TKey, TValue> Another category of collection classes is the dictionary classes specifically, Dictionary<Tkey, Tvalue> (see Figure 163) Unlike the list collections, dictionary classes store name/value pairs The name functions as a unique key that can be used to look up the corresponding element in a manner similar to that of using a primary key to access a record in a database This adds some complexity to the access of dictionary elements, but because lookups by key are efficient operations, this is a useful collection Note that the key may be any data type, not just a string or a numeric value
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